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Nepal's tryst with democracy: A timeline

August 17, 2008

Howrah News Service
August 15, 2008

Following is the chronology of important developments in the history of  Nepal.

1768 - Shah dynasty begins after Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah
conquers Kathmandu and lays foundations for a unified kingdom.

1792 - Nepalese aggression halted by defeat at the hands of Chinese in Tibet.

1814-16 - Anglo-Nepalese War; culminates in treaty which establishes
Nepal's current boundaries.

1846 - Jang Bahadur Rana becomes prime minister. Establishes the
hereditary rule of Ranas.

1923 - Treaty with Britain affirms Nepal's sovereignty.

1946 - Nepali Congress party established.

1948 - First constitution of Nepal promulgated.

1950 - King Tribhuvan, present King Gyanendra's grandfather, flees to
India after falling out with the Ranas. Ranas implicate him in a
conspiracy against them. Anti-Rana forces based in India form
alliance with monarch.

1951 - End of Rana rule. King Tribhuvan restored.

1960 - King Mahendra seizes control and suspends parliament,
constitution and party politics after Nepali Congress wins elections
with B P Koirala as premier.

1972 - King Mahendra dies, succeeded by Birendra.

1990 - Pro-democracy agitation co-ordinated by Nepali Congress and
leftist groups. King Birendra bows to pressure and proclaims a new
constitution establishing multy-party democracy under constitutional monarchy.

1991 - Nepali Congress wins first democratic elections. Girija Prasad
Koirala becomes prime minister.

1994 - Koirala's government defeated in no-confidence motion. New
elections lead to formation of leftist government.

1995 - Communist government dissolved.

1995 - Maoists launch armed agitation to abolish monarch and
establishing people's republic.

2000 - GP Koirala returns as prime minister.

2001 June 1 - King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and other close
relatives killed in shooting spree by drunken Crown Prince Dipendra,
who then shoots himself. Prince Gyanendra becomes king.

2001 November - State of emergency declared after more than 100
people are killed in four days of violence. King Gyanendra orders
army to crush the Maoist rebels.

2002 May - Parliament dissolved, fresh elections called amid
political confrontation over extending the state of emergency. Sher
Bahadur Deuba heads interim government.

2003 January - Rebels, government declare ceasefire.

2004 May - Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa resigns following weeks
of street protests by opposition groups.

2005 February 1 - King Gyanendra dismisses Prime Minister Deuba
and  is government, declares a state of emergency.

2005 April 30 - King lifts the state of emergency.

2005 November - Maoist rebels and main opposition parties agree on
a  programme intended to restore democracy.

2006 April - King Gyanendra agrees to reinstate parliament following
weeks of violent strikes and protests against direct royal rule. G P
Koirala is appointed as prime minister. Maoist rebels call a
three-month ceasefire.

2006 May - Parliament votes unanimously to curtail the king's powers.

2006 November - The government and Maoists sign a historic peace accord.

2007 January - Maoist leaders enter parliament under the terms of
interim constitution.

2007 September - Maoists quit interim government to press demand for
monarchy to be scrapped.

2007 December - Parliament approves abolition of monarchy as part of
peace deal with Maoists, who agree to re-join government. Mainstream
parties and the Maoists agree to hold elections by mid-April 2008.

2008 April 10 - Nepal votes in elections for a constituent assembly
to rewrite the country's constitution. The Maoists win 220 of 601
seats in the elections.

2008 May 28 - Nepal becomes Republic and 240-year-old monarchy abolished.

2008 June 12 - Seven Maoist ministers resign from Prime Minister G P
Koirala's government in a row over who should be the next head of state.

2008 July 19 - Constituent Assembly fails to elect president after
none of the candidates get mandatory 298 votes. Decide to hold
run-off on July 21. However, Parmanand Jha from Madhesi People's
Rights Forum elected Vice President.

2008 Aug 05 - Maoists fail to form a unity government as the first
deadline  set by President expires. Nepal's four major parties sought
three days extension to the deadline.

2008 Aug 08 - Major political parties fail to arrive at a consensus
on a Maoist-led government as the second deadline set by the President expires.

2008 Aug 9 - President Yadav directed the chairman of the Assembly
Subhash Nemwang to begin the process for the formation of a
government under Article 38(2) of the interim Constitution.

2008 Aug 15 - Maoists chief Prachanda elected first Nepalese Prime
Minister in post-monarchy era.
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