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"As long as human rights are violated, there can be no foundation for peace. How can peace grow where speaking the truth is itself a crime?"

The Happy Light Bioscope Theatre & Other Stories (PART 2) - Jamyang Norbu

February 24, 2010

Jamyang Norbu
Shadow Tibet
February 23, 2010

The Part I of this essay was presented by WTNN in
February 12, 2010 edition (WTNN editor)


I have not been able to cover as many Tibetan
films as I would have liked here. There was the
problem of time, length and the fact that much of
what is produced in Tibet is not available to us
in exile. Even the works of exile filmmakers are
not always accessible because of lack of
information and distribution. Comments by readers
on films I might have missed would be
appreciated. Apologies for not posting this on
"tsepa sum" as I promised. I was in New York for
Losar and left the adapter cord for my Mac behind.


 From their first encounter with the modern world
Tibetans appear to have taken to such inventions
as photography with relative insouciance --
considering Tibet’s reputation as a "forbidden
land." We hear of a Tibetan using a camera, and
even compiling a photography manual, around
1881-82. The cine-camera, of course, came a bit
later. We know Tsarong had a projector in 1920
and appears to have acquired a movie camera some
years later. Heinrich Harrer tells us that he saw
some films shot by Tsarong’s son Dundul Namgyal,
and was impressed at the professional quality of
the work. Old man Tsarong himself filmed the
Anglo-Tibetan football (soccer) matches outside Lhasa in 1936.

Harrer also tells us that the young 14th Dalai
Lama was a keen cinematographer and we know that
Harrer was commissioned to build him a private
cinema hall at the Norbulingka. Harrer mentions
that he was somewhat slow and clumsy in handling
the projector and His Holiness becoming impatient
pushed him aside and showed him how to work the
apparatus. Harrer writes that the
fourteen-year-old Dalai Lama had -- even taken
apart a projector to pieces and put it together again."

Jigme Taring was another Tibetan official who was
an enthusiastic and competent cinematographer. He
filmed scenes of festivals and street life in
Lhasa. Probably his most viewed and important
work is the film documentation of the 14th Dalai
Lama official tour of Sera, Drepung and Ganden
and his religious examinations, particularly the
viva voce for his Geshe degree in 1948.

The late Chogyal of Sikkim, Palden Thondup
Namgyal, also shot extensive footage of his
native Sikkim and his visit to Tibet in the
mid-fifties. The film footage of the Dalai Lama’s
escape in ’59 were shot by the resistance
photographer, Tsonkha Janjup Jinpa, who also
filmed some of the operations of the Four Rivers
and Six Ranges in Lhoga. The CIA supplied some of
the air dropped missions into Tibet with still
and cine-cameras, and instructions to record as
much of their operations as reasonably possible.

The first Tibetan feature film was most likely
made in the mid seventies(?) by the late
Gungthang Tsultrim, director of the Tibetan
refugee community at Clement Town in Dehradun
district, and head of the Thirteen Group (tsokha
chuksum) of Tibetan settlements. Tsultrim founded
the Amdo Dance and Drama Society in the early
sixties and produced and directed a musical drama
on the life of the Tibetan Emperor, Songtsen
Gampo. To make his feature film, Tsultrim hired
equipment, professional cameramen other technical
personnel from Bombay. I have been told that the
film was partly shot in Clement Town itself but
mostly in Ladakh. My informant was fairly certain
that the film had a definite story line, and
recreated scenes of life in old Tibet, particularly Amdo.

Because of Tsultrim’s political differences with
Gyalo Thondup, the Dalai Lama’s brother, and the
government-in-exile, this pioneering example of
Tibetan filmmaking has been largely unknown to
Tibetan society, and the negative and prints of
this film appear to have been lost after
Tsultrim’s murder in 1977. I recall that The
Illustrated Weekly of India did a write-up on
this film with photographs of scenes from the
film, but I have never been able to get hold of
that issue. I recently learned that this film has
been recovered and I am hoping that it will be
available for viewing fairly soon.

In lieu of definite information about Tsultrim’s
film we would have to consider Khyentse Norbu’s
Phorpa (The Cup, 1999) to be the first proper
full-length Tibetan feature film. The work of an
eminent lama (Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rimpoche)
Phorpa was a tremendously successful first film,
winning a prize at Cannes and receiving awards
and accolades worldwide. Though a slice-of-life
observation of a spiritual community in exile the
film is joyously irreverent. Rimpoche entertains
us with a hilarious story of some young monks
whose devotion to Buddhism is rivaled by their
fervor for football and the 1998 World Cup, but
at the same time he also makes us realize, with
great skill and subtlety, how the tragedy of
Tibet is never quite far away from our lives.
Rimpoche, who is Bhutanese/Tibetan, has made
Bhutan the subject of his second film Travellers
and Magicians which was released in 2004.

A year earlier saw the release of Lungta
(Windhorse) 1998, which, though directed by an
American, Paul Wagner, had considerable Tibetan
input in its creation. With a Tibetan
screenwriter, Thupten Tsering, and other young
Tibetans participating, this was one of the few
feature-films that directly addressed the
political repression in Chinese-occupied Tibet. A
number of sequences were covertly shot in Lhasa
city, in a kind of guerrilla filmmaking, which
gave the production a hard cinéma vérité edge.

A video-film, "Tsampai Shenkhok or Loyalty"
(1999) produced by the Tibetan Institute of
Performing Arts, and directed by Jamyang Dorjee,
was released in 1999. It tells the story of young
Tibetans in Lhasa city defying the Chinese
occupation forces. The story was adapted from the
Indian film Shaheed. Another film drawing
inspiration from Indian cinema is Pema Dhondup’s,
We Are No Monks (2004). The film deals with the
dichotomy of young refugees attempting to create
a normal life in their exile world, but feeling
their patriotism pulling them in another
direction. Bollywood actor, Gulshan Grover, is
cast as a local police officer who encounters
these confused and angry young men.

Probably the most professional and artistically
conscious production following the release of the
"The Cup" was "Dreaming Lhasa," from the
husband/wife team of Tenzin Sonam and Ritu Sarin.
Released at the end of 2004, the film tells the
story of a young Tibetan woman, a filmmaker from
the United States, finding friendship, and at
times frustration and sorrow in the refugee
community in India. In Dharamshala she is drawn
into the strange search of a new arrival from
Tibet for his father, a long-vanished resistance
fighter. The film takes us through the nooks and
crannies of the Tibetan exile world in India:
McLeod Ganj, Jaipur, Jantar Mantar, Sadar Bazaar,
Majnukatilla and even high Triund, in a dramatic
and fascinating quest, which in the end resolves
not just into the discovery of the missing
father, but in a way the meaning of Tibet.

The husband/wife team of Tenzin Sonam and Ritu
Sarin are successful documentary filmmakers. Five
of these are about "Tibet: The Reincarnation of
Khentse Rimpoche" (1991), "The Trials of Telo
Rimpoche" (1994), "A Stranger in My Native Land"
(1998) and "The Shadow Circus: The CIA in Tibet"
(1998). Their most recent film "Sun Behind the
Clouds" (2010) won "The Best of the Fest" Award
at Palm Springs Film Festival, and upset Beijing
enough into withdrawing its two entries.

Tsering Rhitar, a resident of Kathmandu, won a
major South Asian documentary film award with The
"Spirit Doesn’t Come Anymore" (1997). He has also
made a feature film "Mukundo" (1999) about a
female shaman of Nepal. Another Kathmandu-based
Tibetan filmmaker, Kesang Tseten, has a number of
documentaries to his credit, as We Homes Chaps
(2001) and On the Road With the Red God (2004).

With the advent of affordable digital cameras
quite a few small films have been made in the
Tibetan exile community. Such films as New York
Mare Meyok Ray, Richard Gere is My Hero, Pun Anu
Thanu and others (whose write-ups and ads often
appear in visibly express the energy
and enthusiasm of new Tibetan filmmakers. Perhaps
what these young movie makers need to attract
attention beyond their present audience base of
young exiles, is a greater investment of study,
technical skill and overall experience in the production.


The first major propaganda film made by the
Chinese in Tibet was the documentary "Zingtru
Lhingchak" (Peaceful Suppression of Rebellion"
made immediately after the March Uprising and
screened all over Tibet and China. Most of the
scenes of the fighting and the surrender of
Tibetan fighters including the old commander in
chief Tsarong Dasang Damdul, were re-enactments.
The dramatic scene of the full-scale assault of
the Chakpori redoubt ("Yowang" Hill) by Chinese
soldiers, which has since appeared in nearly
every documentary of the Tibetan struggle, was
completely re-enacted. The finale of the movie
was the staged demonstration by "20,000" citizens
of Lhasa "voicing determined support for the
complete suppression of the rebellion,"
culminating in a giant public rally before the
Potala, replete with massed red flags and giant banners.

The film also shows alleged "torture instruments,
thigh bone trumpets, human skulls etc., that have
since become mandatory elements of Chinese
propaganda visuals. One scene of Tibetan feudal
barbarity, the "scorpion-filled dungeons" of the
Potala, was exposed by eyewitness Thupten Khetsun
(Memories of Life in Lhasa Under Chinese Rule) as
a complete fabrication where the scorpions for
the dungeon scene, were caught by Tibetan children conscripted for the task.

Most films made in Tibet before the eighties were
such propaganda documentaries and newsreels. Very
few feature films were made. An informant,
Tsering Wangchuk of Lhasa, claimed that only
three feature films were actually made in Tibet in the sixties and seventies.

The Serf (Shingdren/Nongnu) was made in 1963 by a
PLA film unit and directed by Li Jun. The film
(also called Jampa) tells the story of a young
orphan serf whose parents were killed by a cruel
landowner. Jampa toils as a "human horse" for the
landowner’s son, and is so starved that he steals
tsampa-dough offerings (torma) from a monastery.
He is caught by brutish looking monks and beaten
mercilessly. The monks tell him that since he has
stolen and eaten sacred tormas he will be struck
dumb. The serf is unable to speak from then on,
and suffers more tortures at the hand of his
feudal masters. Finally the "People’s Liberation
Army" marches into Tibet. A few more scenes of
battles and oppression and our wretched serf is
finally liberated. Jamba then releases a cry of
anguish and utters his first words, the name of Chairman Mao!

This film was screened all over China and Tibet
and schoolchildren were required to see it. The
film was probably effective, especially to
Chinese audiences, in conveying the message that
old Tibet was "hell on earth," but the depiction
of Tibetan people as dirty and barbaric appears
to have offended many Tibetans, especially in
Lhasa. I was told that the citizens of the holy
city did not refer to the film by its official
title of The Serf, but as Torma Kuma or The Torma
Thief. The theft of a religious object (even a
negligible one as a tsampa cake) assuming more
significance in the Tibetan mind than the
class-struggle and revolutionary aspects of the film.

Tears of the Mountain (Gangri Mikchu, initially
titled The Child Not Allowed to be Born or Kyay
Mechokpae Pugu) was made in 1964 and tells the
story of a serf woman whose feudal masters do not
allow her to bear a child (a presentiment of
China’s "One Child Policy"?). But she defies them
and has a baby anyway. The baby is taken away
from her and murdered. The child’s skin is used
to cover the sides of a monastic drum. Whenever
the drum is beaten at the monastery the child’s
father (or grandfather?) cries out in sorrow "ngae pugu!." "My child!"

A third movie was made in the sixties about
events in Eastern Tibet. My informant told me
that the film had a lot of action, singing and
dancing. What should be noted is that other than
as actors and extras Tibetans had no role in the
making of these films. In 1980, or thereabouts a
film, Siri Metok (Alpenrose) was made about an
exile Tibetan from India returning to Amdo and
being reunited with a daughter he had never known.

Since the mid eighties TAR and regional TV
companies, in cooperation with some film studios
and theatrical troupes produced TV films, series,
comedy programs and documentaries on Tibetan
subjects and themes, with an eye to commercial
distribution. Though Tibetan actors and
screenwriters were used, the films were all
directed and produced by Chinese filmmakers. In
1989 Tibet Regional Theatre Troupe and Emei
Films, came out with the big budget film, "The
Secret History of the Potala Palace" (Potalae
Sangtam/Budala Gong Mishi). Directed by Zhang Yi,
the film told the story of the story of 5th Dalai
Lama and his regent Desi Sangye Gyatso, who is
said to have tricked the Chinese Emperor. The
film was reportedly banned because it showed the
5th Dalai Lama meeting the Chinese Emperor in
1652 and not performing the kow-tow.

One TV series, "Wind and Clouds over Tibet"
(Bhodjong dhus gyur/Xizang Fengyun) CCTV, 2000,
depicted the Chinese invasion of Tibet and the
futile efforts of the Tibetan ruling class to
resist it. It included scenes of CIA missions
into Tibet and the March Uprising, all, of
course, from an official Chinese point of view.
Nonetheless the mere fact of showing a
pre-invasion Tibet with its own government, flag
and an army that resisted the Communist invasion
(no matter how ineffectually) came as major
revelation to many young Tibetans in Tibet. Parts of the film were censored.

This was followed by other TV drama series
depicting the lives of people (mostly
aristocrats!) in old Tibet. A friend of mine sent
me (in video CD) a twenty part series The Tale of
Lhasa’s Past (Lhasae ngonjung tamgyud), a
collaborative effort of CCTV and Tibet TV. The
series based on the novel God Without Gender by
the Tibetan writer Yangdon was aired in 2001.
Another series produced by Tibet TV in 2002 was,
In the Direction of Lhasa (Lhasar chogpa).

The first Chinese film on Tibet released in the
West was The Horse Thief (1986), directed by Tian
Zhuangzhuang. The film is a virtual compendium of
Tibetan traditions and practices that Chinese
find barbaric yet fascinating, like sky-burial,
"ghost-dances" (cham performances), and some
"customs" made up along the way, out of whole
cloth, such as the banishment of the titular
Norbu from his tribe for stealing horses, and his
"punishment by effigy," which could perhaps be a
garbled reference to the Losar ritual of the
scapegoat king (logong gyalpo). The film takes
full advantage of Tibet’s dramatic and
breathtaking landscape, and, overall it received
glowing reviews in the West. Martin Scorsese
considered it his top favorite for 1990.

Some Tibetan friends of mine at the time,
disagreed with my take on the film, regarding The
Horse Thief as a welcome improvement over
previous Chinese propaganda films. Sure, it
wasn’t The Serf, but it was racist, at the very
least. It presumed, without question, that
Tibetans were savages. Perhaps a noble savage in
the case of Norbu (who is often shot in profile,
posing dramatically against the Tibetan skyline)
but savages nonetheless. My friends argued that I
should not allow my personal feelings to blind me
to the film’s artistic and technical merits. I
didn’t think the film had merit, but even if it
did, my inclinations were those of Malcolm X, who
in his biography recalled cringing in a Detroit
film theater when he first saw Gone With the Wind.

Quite a few other Chinese films on Tibet appeared
following the Horse Thief, a laughably bad one
being Red River Valley, on the British invasion
of 1904. I am not going any further into Chinese
directed films on Tibet, but will share with the
reader whatever I have managed learn about
Tibetan filmmakers in Tibet who have begun to
create their own works. I want to make it clear
that I have not seen many of these films, but
just heard accounts and read news-reports, and I
would be grateful if readers could point me to
where I could get them on DVD or CD.

In Amdo, Phagmo Tashi a director of music videos
came out with Longing in 1993. Then the Amdo
writer and scholar Jangbu (Dorji Tsering
Chenaktsang) who had written a brief history of
Tibetan films, came out with his own documentary,
"Ani Lhacham" (2006) about a young nun seeking
the meaning of happiness. Jangbu had earlier
written screenplays for Chinese filmmakers on Tibetan subjects.

A graduate of Beijing Film school Pema Tseden
(Wanma Caidan) made the documentary "Tsathang" or
Grassland in 2004. Pema Tseden is the son of
Tibetan nomads, the only one of three siblings to
have finished his schooling. A year later he came
out with his first feature film, "The Silent Mani
Stone." Last year Pema Tseden came out with
another feature, "The Search," which won the
Grand Jury prize at the Shanghai International
Film Festival, and is slated to be shown at the
upcoming Locarno film festival in Switzerland.
"The Search" begins as a quest for actors for a
film adaptation of a Tibetan opera about the
pious "King Drime Kunden," who gives away all his
worldly possessions including his wife and
children. The Hollywood Reporter observed that
the film "organically evolves into an offbeat
cultural album of Tibetan people as well as a
cinematic pilgrimage to understand their lifestyles and religious heritage."

Lisa Lim of NPR reported that "The film and its
director tread a delicate tightrope, tiptoeing
around controversial political issues. As a
Tibetan film, the picture underwent stricter
censorship than other Chinese films. It was
vetted by the State Administration of Film, Radio
and Television, as well as by the Religious
Affairs Bureau and the United Front Work
Department, which manages relations with ethnic
minority groups in China." The NPR report is at (You can also access the trailer at
this site. <>)


Movie making got off to an auspicious start in
Sikkim with Satyajit Ray shooting a documentary
on this Himalayan kingdom. The film, "Sikkim,"
was commissioned by the Chogyal in 1972. After
India’s takeover of Sikkim the documentary was
banned. Ray expressed disappointment with the
Government of India’s decision, saying that when
it was made Sikkim was clearly a separate country
and that the film could be viewed in the present day as a document of the past.

Sikkim’s first feature film "Romeo in Sikkim"
(1977?) was financed and produced by a Sikkimese
businessman, K. B Pradhan, and directed by his
son Shyam, who also played the lead role. An
entire Indian film crew was hired from Bombay.
The film never got past its grand premiere at the
Star Cinema at Gangtok. It probably failed not so
much for its production values which were
entirely Bombay, but because the leading man (who
was on the small side) was unable to fill the
larger-than-life persona required of Bollywood heroes.

Ladakh’s first feature film, "Sonam Dolma" (1996)
was the work of the popular singer/actor Phuntsok
Ladakhi. The film was made in the Ladakhi dialect
and deals with social issues of young Ladakhi men
turning away from their Buddhist culture because
of tourism and fast money. It was funded by Doordharshan and shot on 35mm film.

Unlike Khentse Norbu, most early filmmakers in
Bhutan seemed to have started off modestly with
video films. I first came across a few of these
produced by a youth organization, Nazhon Phuntsok
Drayang from Thimphu, one being "Phama" or
Parents directed by Palden Dorjee. Another
feature by the same director was shot in 1998 in
film. "Mieyi Dugnyel" (Man’s Suffering) tells the
story of drugs, alcohol, zee-stone smuggling,
barroom brawls and chorten robbery in the Dragon
Kingdom. The two young leads, school-dropouts, in
the end suffer from karmic retribution --
leprosy. The film industry in Bhutan has grown
considerably since then, and one comes across the
names of such filmmakers as Tshering Wangyal,
Karma Tshering, Nima Yoezer, Kesang P Jigme,
Sonam Yeshey, Lhamo Drukpa and other in the pages
of Bhutan’s English language paper Kuensel.
Bhutan even has its own annual film awards
ceremony. I understand that Bhutanese films and
TV drama serials are very popular in the Tibetan
exile community, at least in Dharamshala, where
they are shown regularly on the local cable
network. The combination of shared Buddhist
values, similar lifestyle and cultural mores,
language accessibility and the Bollywood style
singing, dancing and action appear to be irresistible.


When I was director of TIPA from 1980 to 1985, I
worked on broadening the cultural perspective of
my students and artistes by introducing them to
world cinema. This was before the days of videos.
Unlike the Indian hill-stations of Darjeeling or
Mussoorie, where Western films were shown
regularly in local cinemas, Dharamshala only had
the Himalaya Talkies which screened an scratched
print of Shenandoah once every year or so,
besides its regular fare of Hindi films. TIPA had
been given a 16mm projector by Rikha Lobsang
Tenzin, secretary of the Education Department,
and I managed to locate a film library in Bombay
that had a great collection of early Hollywood
classics in 16 mm, at affordable rates. So it was
not long before TIPA students got to see King
Kong (the wonderful old version), The Thief of
Baghdad, "Prisoner of Zenda, Flash Gordon, Robin
Hood, Captain Blood, Buck Rogers, Ivanhoe,
Tarzan, The Phantom, Destry Rides Again, The
Seven Voyages of Sinbad, Jason and the Argonauts,
Mighty Joe Young (with stop-action animation by
the great Ray Harryhausen), and many other
memorable films of my childhood. Soon afterward
the then principal of the Tibetan Children’s
Village asked me to select films to show their students.

TIPA secretary Tsering Migmar and projectionist
Karma Gyaltsen organized outdoor screenings of
these films for the McLeod Ganj public at the day
school playground. Everyone loved it. Following a
screening of the great Toho classic, "Godzilla,"
when the monster’s radioactive breath and
stomping feet had destroyed most of Tokyo, an old
Tibetan was overheard remarking wistfully. "Now
that’s the kind of animal (simchen) we need to send to Beijing."

We also showed "Nosferatu" (1922), the seminal
film of vampire lore and German Expressionism
(complements of the West German Embassy in
Delhi), and the early "Dracula" (1931) with Bela
Lugosi. Tibetans called Dracula, "dre-ku-la, the
"dre" being the Tibetan generic word for ghosts,
demons and monsters. Dracula’s assistant, Renfeld
(I think he was called) was dubbed with one of
the wonderful contractions that the Tibetan
language is capable of -- "dre-yok" or demon servant.

A more organized and broader effort at public
film education was undertaken at Dharamshala by
the Amnye Machen Institute. It initially hosted
"World Cinema Appreciation Evenings," with
screenings of and discussion on such great films
of national liberation as, The Battle of Algiers,
and A Vad (The Prosecution) by the award winning
Hungarian film-maker, Sandor Sara who attended
the Dharamshala screening. A Kurosawa
"Retrospective" was held after the death of the
great director, and the world premiere of "The
Shadow Circus: the CIA in Tibet," by Tenzin Sonam
and Ritu Sarin. AMI also hosted a screening of
documentaries by Tibetan directors and video-shorts by first time filmmakers.

AMI organized The Festival of Swiss Films in 1997
in Dharamshala, with the collaboration of the
Arts Council of Switzerland, Cinema Xenix of
Zurich, TIPA and the Swiss embassy. A similar
Japanese Film Festival was held in 2000 with the
collaboration of the Japanese Embassy. A Satyajit
Ray retrospective and a SCI-FI film festival were also in the works.

It is a pity that the government-in-exile never
really saw cinema as a useful tool for promoting
the struggle or even educating and informing the
Tibetan public. Film and video have been used
largely as a medium for recording His Holiness
teachings and talks of religious figures and high
officials. This, of course, serves an important
purpose, but of a limited kind. I mentioned in a
previous essay, Cinema ‘59, that the Russian
Revolution’s use of the cinema to spread its
political message and galvanize its mainly rural
population is certainly something that the
Tibetan freedom movement could emulate. A friend
of mine is working on a discussion site for such
a purpose (that might be called Cinema ‘59) where
we could explore such possibilities, and perhaps
even implement some of them. Dhondup Wangchen’s
"Leaving Fear Behind," is one kind of cinema
activism from which we could take inspiration, if
not pointers, for future projects.


Before concluding with a cry of "Cut!" and "Print
it!" a little metaphysical obiter dictum might
serve to round off this piece. The fact that the
power of cinema essentially derives from the
projection of an infinite series of fleeting
images -- illusions -- in a darkened room, should
make it a telling metaphor to convey such
Buddhist concepts as samara and maya. There were
no cinemas in 11th century Neyshapur, but Omar
Khayam, using the example of a child’s magic lantern gives us this quatrain.

We are no other than a moving row
Of Magic Shadow-shapes that come and go
Round with the Sun-illumined Lantern held
In Midnight by the Master of the Show;

I don’t think I have seen anything like this
expressed in the teachings or sermons of
contemporary lamas or Buddhist teachers, so I
will leave the reader with a verse I came across
sometime ago, said to have been penned by Gedun
Choephel la in Nangtseshar prison. The original
was reputedly destroyed. This present version,
I’m told, came from the memory of a lama in exile who knew him well.

The profound darkness of a cinema
Our mind
The white light projected on a screen
‘Dharmata’, ‘sunyata’.
The various forms which appear in this light;
Illusory phenomena.
The queen, the star of the show,
Her many seductions,
Her tears and her laughter:
Her beauty and her ugliness,
Her love and her hate:
The chain of causality.

NOTE: Besides the textual sources, most of the
information for this piece came from
conversations I had (over the years) with the
late Nornang Ganden la, Lingtsang Thupten Tsering
la, the late Chitiling Ngawang Dhakpa la, the
late Gyen Lutsa la, Gyen Norbu Tsering la, Tashi
Tsering la (of AMI), Tsering Wangchuk la, Jamyang
Dorjee la, my uncle TC Tethong, my late grand
uncle Tesur Palden Gyaltsen, my late mother, and
many other friends and relatives. I must also
thank Sonam Dhargyal la for sending me CD copies
of films from Tibet, Isrun Engelhardt for
documentation on Dikyilinga film shows, and
graphic artist Tashi Gyamtso for the AMI film
posters and banners, many of which he designed.
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