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"I believe that to meet the challenges of our times, human beings will have to develop a greater sense of universal responsibility. It is the foundation for world peace."

Interview: Diagnosing the Current Situation in Tibet

May 9, 2008

Interview with the Tibetan author Woeser
May 1, 2008

The following is an interview with Tibetan writer Woeser (also Woser,
Oeser, Oser; Ch: Weise). It was conducted in 2006 by Namlo Yak,
another contemporary Tibetan writer, and who has been living in exile
since 1999. The original interview was published on a Chinese website
in Chinese language. The present version is an abridged English
translation of that interview.

Woeser issued a press statement on 27 April 2008 explaining that her
blog,, has been subjected to cyber attacks
since 26 April, preventing her from logging on since then. Existing
entries seem to have remained intact, however about 20 new entries
have been posted on the comments page. Woeser therefore advised
visitors to her website to "be careful with any of the postings after
1:30 am Beijing time, 27 April". Woeser's website has recently been a
key source for news about Tibet. Many recent reports disseminated by
a diverse range of Tibet support groups source from this website.
Meanwhile, Woeser continues to post current news about Tibet in
Chinese language on another website,

Q: What is your current situation? [Note: The interview was conducted in 2006]

Woeser: A few years ago, in one of my books I wrote: "My writing has
become clearer, unequivocal. I will be a witness. I will be looking
for, discovering, revealing and spreading a secret, which will be
astonishing". This is the expectation I have.

"Speaking the truth" is a basic requisite for being an author but
today, in my situation, I have to pay for it. For example, after I
published my essay collection "Tibet Notes", I was punished in many
ways, which directly affected my right to survive, so I had to leave
Lhasa to become an independent author outside of that political
structure. On the one hand I feel relatively free now not to have to
obey any official will, on the other hand, as I have had to leave
Lhasa, I feel I have somehow become a refugee; it has made me very sad.

Q: Nowadays, you are a freelance writer; could you publish your
articles with official publishers? If you cannot, what are the
excuses or reasons given for refusing to publish your articles?

Woeser: I am a Tibetan author writing in the Chinese language so
relatively speaking, I have more space to publish my work in China
than in Tibet. There are only a few publishers in the TAR (Tibet
Autonomous Region), and they are firmly controlled by government
ideology. Even though there is a very strict system of checking any
published work in Mainland China, the country is vast and there are
innumerable publications, so it is always possible to find a space
for expressing the truth.

Incidentally, as Tibet and its culture have become very popular in
China, there are an increasing number of Chinese people who have
shown great interest in learning about Tibet's people, geography and
its spiritual world. Therefore authors such as myself can find a
space to publish relevant articles.

Today, the situation in China has become much more severe; it has
been said that a book, if its theme relates to Tibet, has to be
submitted for examination by the central government. But sometimes it
happens that the strict controls of the authorities still have some
loopholes. So in 2004, my book -- "The Crimson Map" -- was published
by the Chinese Tour Publishing Company. After a short while, the
Propaganda Department of the TAR exerted huge pressure, which led to
a prohibition on the sale of my book.

There is another book of mine, which has been circulating among
different publishers for a long time, and I recently received
correspondence from an editor stating: "... the topic of the book you
submitted for publication, bodes ill rather than well as it involves
some important subjects, like the nationality issue and the Cultural
Revolution." So, it is incredibly hard to publish a book or an
article today, I really feel unhappy and frustrated. But it is
possible to publish some poems.

It needs to be clarified that Mainland China is not the only place to
publish a book in Chinese. If there are problems getting one
published, we can still publish it outside the country. I have
published three books in Taiwan this year [Note: The interview was
conducted in 2006], two of which are about the Chinese Cultural
Revolution in Tibet. But I really hope that I can publish my books in
Mainland China, as most Chinese readers are here, and it will be
really helpful to provide more information about Tibet to Chinese
people - to generate a great awareness about Tibet through my books.

Q: I have heard that in order to get access to the internet in Tibet,
Tibetan people have to use their identity cards to register for
special permission. Do you think this 'special permission' prevents
people from expressing their opinions freely?

Woeser: Half a year ago, I returned to Lhasa for a few months. Mostly
I used the internet from my home, and there were a few times when I
went to an internet cafe, but I didn't encounter any problems over
'special permission'. I don't know whether they have to request
special permission in internet cafes. It is true that there is a lot
of pressure from authorities concerning the use of the internet
wherever it is, in the office, homes or internet cafes, so it has
made people terribly afraid to visit some politically sensitive
websites. No one even wants to 'have their say' on the BBC. People
always feel that someone is spying on them, and the authorities will
discover who has visited these forbidden websites. So it is not only
affecting the ability of people to freely express their opinions;
actually, there is no way to do so. In fact, people are not only
facing difficulties using the internet, but in their daily lives they
are afraid that something might happen to them. It's like walking on
very thin ice because this long-held fear has changed the atmosphere,
and has lodged deeply into each individual's mind. So today, it's
like people live double lives, or split lives, in Tibet.

Q: It is said that there are double standards within Tibet's cultural
circles. For example, there are strict controls for Tibetans who
write in Tibetan, as opposed to looser controls among Tibetans who
write in Chinese; or tight control over Tibetans who are famous, as
opposed to a relaxed attitude to those Tibetans who are not. Have you
been affected by these double standards?

Woeser: The double standards that you have mention actually exist. In
Tibet, there is an unwritten law in the political system that goes:
"If people have a very high standard in Tibetan literature; normally
these people have stronger religious faith and reactionary ideology".
This situation has led to the spread of Tibetan literature studies
being intentionally or inadvertently neglected and has speeded up the
assimilation of Tibetan by Chinese. It also means Tibetan
intellectuals have to passively accept the current situation in Tibet
in order to survive. If there is someone who wants the authorities to
pay more attention to Tibetan literature and to respect Tibetan
culture, he or she will be regarded as a narrow nationalist at best,
or a national separatist if the authorities are inclined to treat
them more seriously.

It is obvious that in Tibet, Tibetan authors who write in Chinese
have felt relatively less pressure from the authorities than authors
writing in Tibetan. One could say there are differences between
authors depending whether they work within the official structure or
not. Authors who are part of this system are controlled and limited
in equal measures by the government, and if someone becomes famous,
then he or she will be treated very well and lots of benefits will be
offered, such as power and profits. Then they can't normally give up
these benefits once they become famous. Somehow it has turned to an
invisible tightness.

Outside the official structures, it is certainly true that famous
authors have more space to survive in than lesser well-known authors.
Consider me as an example; after I was expelled from office, I still
kept writing, but I cannot imagine what would happen to an ordinary
author who produced the same work as me.

Q: Where have you been to in Tibet? Could you give a brief overview
of the situation in these places?

Woeser: In recent years, I have been to most Tibetan areas for both
travel and pilgrimage, as, deep in my heart, I regard the whole of
Tibet as a huge monastery. This of course was my initial impression
of Tibet, when I was there. After I spent a long time at the grass
roots level in Tibet, my initial impression, which was more like a
literary emotion, was changed to a feeling for history and a sense of
purpose, like being on a mission. I can say that I used to look at my
motherland with an aesthetic conception, but today I have started to
see it and its people from a more historical and realistic
perspective. Now, I am going to talk about several basic situations
in Tibet from different perspectives:

Environmental issues: Tibet is known as a paradise on Earth, but
today its environmental situation has become a great concern;
examples are: grass degeneration, deforestation, desertification and
river exhaustion... Indeed, Tibet has a very fragile environment, and
its harsh natural conditions make it much harder for vegetation to
grow. Fortunately, there is a respect and compassion for living
creatures in traditional Tibetan culture that advocates the
protection of our ecological balance. So today we can still see
beautiful natural scenery in Tibet. But currently our traditional
culture is being destroyed, and instead the commercial trend, which
only focuses on making money, has been popularised. So, as a result,
the environment has been damaged.

Social issues: Since 1980, the authorities began managing many
different kinds of festivals and celebrations. During these events,
the most important feature is the traditional Tibetan fashion shows
that have been promoted by the government-run media as a sign of
wealth in Tibet. Very expensive and precious jewels and animal skins,
such as tiger, leopard and otter, are used to decorate each article
of clothing. This deviates from the concepts of traditional Tibetan
clothing as well as from the essential Buddhist precept to cherish
all kinds of life. It also departs from international awareness about
protecting our environment. At the same time, this trend has also
created unhealthy competition between local people, and has led to
pressure to irrationally purchase these goods.

Another issue is that many Chinese-backed aid projects have renamed
Tibetan streets, town squares and buildings with the names of the
Chinese provinces and cities where support for the projects
originated. This kind of phenomena has made Tibet lose its culture
and character. In its place it has created a colonial legacy.
Recently, it's even been reported that the biggest statue of Chairman
Mao will be transported to Tibet as a 'support project'.

Another very significant development, especially in Tibetan towns and
cities, is the change of language to Chinese. Tibetans in Sichuan
province speak Chinese with the Sichuan accent; Tibetans in Yunnan
province speak Chinese with the Yunnan accent; and Tibetans in
Qinghai province speak Chinese with the Qinghai or sometimes Gansu
accents, but Tibetans in the TAR and Lhasa speak Chinese with the
standard Chinese pronunciation. When you are crossing the border
between two different provinces, you will hear the differences
between these accents.

It is said that there was a meeting held in Chengdu to discuss the
creation of a standard Tibetan pronunciation, and the participants
came from five Tibetan provinces. During the presentation, there were
a few lecturers who spoke Tibetan, but most of them spoke Chinese
with a number of different regional accents. Following that, people
jokingly spoke about "using the Chinese language to create a new
standard Tibetan pronunciation".

Q: What do you think about the new Chinese migrant issue in Tibet, as
you have continuously travelled to Tibet, and what sort of people are
involved in this huge migration?

Woeser: For this question, I am going to quote some information from
one of my conversations with a senior TAR official in Lhasa two years
ago. During the conversation, I asked him: "The Ministry of Public
Security has been implementing a reform of the Household Registration
Policy in mainland China. Do you think this reform will be carried
out in Tibet?"

He answered: "It has already been executed in Tibet. Its objective is
to encourage Chinese people in Mainland China to migrate to Tibet.
Have you seen that these Chinese construction workers have already
become local people in Lhasa? There are so many of them coming from
Sichuan, Henan, Shanxi and Gansu provinces, and they have rented all
the fields on the suburbs of Lhasa, so today there are no fields left
there. Many of these new Chinese migrants have been making their own
businesses in Tibet, like restaurants, vehicle repair centres,
construction companies and many more. At the beginning, only a few of
them came to Tibet, carrying on their backs just a woven bag and a
sleeping sheet, but after a while their relatives and friends
followed them. It's just like a small snowball rolling from the peak
of the mountain down to the valley becoming bigger and bigger.

Have you ever tried 'Jade Baozi'? [Dumplings similar to Tibetan
steamed momos] The owner of this restaurant is a lady from Sichuan
province, she started her business on a very small scale, but today
she has opened a chain of restaurants all over Tibet."

I replied: "I don't think she is one of the Chinese migrants, she
just belongs to the 'Chinese floating population in Tibet'. A few
days ago, didn't the Chairman of the TAR describe the migrants in
this way to foreign journalists?" "Hahaaaa! How could he say anything
else? He wouldn't want to lose his position", he said smiling. "What
is the floating population? These Chinese construction workers have
already settled in Tibet. Near my home, there is a school filled with
the children of these construction workers, so now they've even
started to establish schools in Tibet", he said. "Some people are
saying: 'Don't Tibetans need development? This is why we need to
encourage educated people to go to Tibet'. Yes, it's not wrong, we
need development and we need to attract educated people, but do you
see what kind of people have come to Tibet? In America, there are
also a lot of Chinese, but they are the high achievers, so this is
the real meaning of exporting human resources. However, the Chinese
people in Tibet are only the construction workers with a very low
level of education", he said.

"By the way, there are several different ways that this enormous
Chinese migration into Tibet will continue. For instance: the new
Chinese migrant students. Many Chinese officials and workers bring
their children from Mainland China to Tibet, before these kids are
about to take their final examinations to enter university. They
normally apply for a permanent resident certificate in Tibet for
these kids, which will enable them to gain an advantage during their
final university entrance examinations, as they are then considered
minority students. As a result, it has become much harder for Tibetan
students to enter a university in both Tibet and China, as Tibetan
students have to compete with these new Chinese migrant students.

There's also the highly educated new Chinese migrants: as it is no
longer the duty of the Chinese government to provide jobs to those
who have just graduated from university, it's become very hard for
young Chinese graduates to find work. Therefore the government has
made promises to attract recent graduates to come to work in Tibet.
Normally these young Chinese are willing to follow the government's
suggestions, especially those who come from very poor areas in China.
You see that there are quite a lot of them already arrived in Tibet", he said.

"Will the new Chinese migrants affect the employment situation of
local Tibetans?" I asked.

"Yes, it's absolutely obvious." he answered. "But what can we do
about it? For example, in this year alone, the Chinese government has
already dispatched a few hundred Chinese tour guides to Tibet. As a
result, there are many Tibetan guides who have lost their jobs.
Ironically, the government has implemented a special new policy for
these Chinese guides; they can refuse to go somewhere very high and
poor such as Ali [Tib: Ngari]. Even in the quiet season, the travel
companies have to provide 3,000 Yuan as a salary for each Chinese
guide. Even though these companies are very frustrated about this new
policy, they can actually do nothing except approve," he added.

"More Chinese migrants will definitely make the situation much more
difficult for Tibetans to find a job", I said.

He replied: "Yes. Chinese people do anything to make money. There is
a joke in Lhasa that goes: A Chinese man (after he'd heard that the
person who performs sky burials can make a lot of money) came to the
office of the National Religious Committee and asked to be a worker
on sky burials, as he insisted that he had better professional skills
than anyone in Tibet! There is another joke that except for the
domdan [the worker responsible for sky burials] and the geshe [a
monk/scholar], there is nothing the Chinese people can't do in the world!"

I said: "Regarding the current situation, I have written: "Today,
Tibet has changed from what she used to be, and many tourists have
been disappointed during their visit to Tibet. Someone even said that
Lhasa has become a clone of Chengdu".

He replied: "One time, I made a test on my own to try to find out a
rough figure for the structure of the population in Lhasa. That is, I
started walking from my home, to the streets at the beginning of New
Shol village, which is right behind the Potala Palace and just a few
hundred metres away from my home. On the way, I met 37 Chinese and
only five Tibetans, so it proves that the new Chinese migrants make
up a significant part of the change in Tibet. Can Tibetans actually
control this fierce migration? The answer unsurprisingly makes us
very unhappy. We live on our land, but we are not the owner of this
land. I have to add one more thing, autonomy today is not worth its
name, so if we want to keep Tibet's real identity, not just the name,
we have to achieve real autonomy", he finally added.

Q: What do you think about the Tibetan youth and what do they think
about pursuing Tibetan culture in general?

Woeser: Tibetan traditional culture is the soul of Tibet, and Tibet's
existence has to be based on pursuing and advocating Tibetan
traditional culture. In one of my articles, which I wrote on 10 March
2005, I appealed: "Let us insist on keeping our own culture, not
completely accepting all kinds of pressure and not following the
trend of modern materialism under totalitarian control, as the
combination of the two will definitely destroy Tibet's soul".

Keeping Tibetan culture does not mean being totally blind and
conservative, it means a cultural choice. Our Tibetan intellectuals,
professors and monks should take responsibility for their nation and
teach ordinary Tibetans that it is not right to unconditionally
follow an arrangement set by a totalitarian regime, and chasing after
materialism doesn't necessarily result in happiness. We should be
determined to keep our tradition and that includes every single thing
in our daily life and each aspect of our spiritual world.

Since I became a freelance writer and published many of my articles
on websites, I find it really interesting that I have met a lot of
young Tibetans, especially in the Kham and U-Tsang regions, that I
rarely had contact with before. This inspired me and gave me great
confidence; I don't feel lonely anymore. Today, there are a lot of
Tibetans, under 40 years old or even younger, who have very important
positions in Tibet. Their rational faculties, sharp minds and
awareness have made me admire them very much. These Tibetans'
national consciousness could not be brainwashed by the education
system. It has become much stronger today, as they have been able to
find more ways to express their national consciousness, especially
through different languages such as Chinese and English.

One time, a young Tibetan wrote me a letter saying: "We are using
many different ways to release our individual voice from deep in our
hearts to the world outside, but our objective is the same".
Currently, there is a very famous saying by H.H the Dalai Lama going
around many Tibetan intellectuals and scholars that says: "Insist on
the Buddhist faith of compassion, wisdom, sincerity and kindness;
Insist on treating an enemy as a relative, with tolerance and
patience; Insist on peace to create trust and understanding". H.H the
Dalai Lama's saying represents his expectation of the Middle Way. We
ought to follow this way. There is a picture being passed around
young Tibetans that depicts H.H the Dalai Lama pulling a cart through
the mire, and a few Tibetans are sitting on the cart chanting to his back.

H.H the Dalai Lama, who has just passed 70 years old, is the
spiritual father of Tibetans. In being his children, we should ease
the burden from his shoulders, as it is so hard. We should also make
an effort in many different ways to achieve union [between Tibetans
in Tibet and exiles] some day in the future.

Q: After the Cultural Revolution, did the local authorities review the past?

Woeser: So far, the local authorities have not questioned any
officials who gained power during the Cultural Revolution. Looking at
those who are powerful in the region's government can show this.

Ragdi: The head of the 'Great United Central' [a Red Guard
organisation during the Cultural Revolution] in the Nagchu area
during the Cultural Revolution. From 1975 to 2003 he was the
Vice-Secretary of TAR, and now he is a member of the Standing
Committee of the National People's Congress(NPC).

Legqoq: (Tib: Legchog) The head of the 'Great United Central' in the
Shigatse area. He is now the Chairman of the NPC in the TAR.

Pasang: The head of the 'Little Red Guard' and the head of the 'Great
United Central' in the Shannan (Tib: Lhoka) area. From 1971 to 2003
she was the Vice-Secretary of TAR, and now she is the Vice Chairman
of the All-China Women's Federation.

Lobsang Dhunzhup: (Tib: Lobsang Dondrub) The Chief of Staff of the
'Serf War' [another Red Guard organisation during the Cultural
Revolution] in the Tibet Nationality University in China. Now he is
the Vice-Chairman of NPC in TAR.

Laba Phuntso: (Tib: Lhagba Phuntsog) The Chief Editor of the 'Tempest
War' newspaper, which belonged to the 'Great United Central'. He is
now the Chief Secretary in charge of Chinese Tibetan Studies Central.

Xiangpa Phuntso: (Tib: Jampa Phuntsog) The Chief of Staff of the
'Serf War'. Now he is the Vice-Secretary of the TAR.

Jangtso: The head of the 'Great United Central' in Tamu Mechanical
Factory. Now he is the Vice-Chairman of the TAR.

Degyi Tsomo: (Tib: Dekyi Tsomo) The head of the "Serf War" in the
Tibet Nationality University in China. Now she is a Standing Member
of the Communist Party of the TAR.)

Buchong: (Tib: Buchung) The head of the 'Great United Central' of
Jonche (Tib: Chonggye) county in the Shannan (Tib: Lhoka) area. Now
he is the Vice-Secretary of the TAR and the Secretary of the Regional
Commission for Discipline Inspection of the TAR.

Basang Dhunzhup: (Tib: Pasang Dondrub) From November 1969 to December
1970, he served in the 409 unit of the People's Liberation Army (PLA)
as a translator in Tibet. Now he is a Standing Member of the
Communist Party of the TAR, the Vice-Chairman of the Political
Consultative Conference of the TAR and the Minister of the United
Front Work Department of the TAR.

Yixi Tenzin (Tib: Yeshe Tenzin): Originally, he was associated with
the 'Rebel Central', [another Red Guard organisation during the
Cultural Revolution] but later he joined the 'Great United Central'.
He is now the Vice-Chairman of the Political Consultative Conference
of the TAR.

Why doesn't the government want to scrutinise them? There are a lot
of local Tibetans who have gained great benefits for themselves
during events in Tibet's recent history. Now they have become one of
the sticking points or stumbling blocks in resolving the Tibetan
issue, as their achievements are purely of a political nature, as
opposed to benefitting the people, and their policies have just been
about pursuing stability, i.e. repressing dissent, in Tibet.

Basically, there are two reasons for this: Firstly, it is related to
Mao's concept of 'Class Struggle'. Secondly, it is related to the
qualities of an individual; these people are uneducated. The only
thing they can do is to overstate their enemy's position. If there is
no enemy, they always try to concoct stories that give them reasons
to draft local policies to keep up the pressure on ordinary people.
This is the only way for both senior Tibetan officials and Chinese
representatives in Tibet; it's purely for these individuals' benefit.
Therefore, you can see why today these Chinese-Tibetan officials are
constantly campaigning about "exposing and denouncing the Dalai Lama"
in Tibet, and they are also trying to inspire [Chinese] nationalism in Tibet.

Currently, a very strange political atmosphere has been generated
around the Tibetan issue. When the Chinese government tries to speak
with H.H the Dalai Lama, the Tibetan regional government always
creates some disturbance that interferes with the negotiations. This
situation has made the Chinese government very frustrated, and
sometimes caused their refusal to negotiate, as the government has to
trust and depend on these senior Chinese-Tibetan officials in the
TAR. So far, this strange political situation has caused a few
negative results. It has made the Chinese government very reluctant
to change its point of view of the Tibetan issue on the world stage.
And then there is serious corruption.

It's said that Tibet is politically the last 'pure' area in China;
[i.e. the region has upheld a socialist tradition] there is no one
who is corrupt amongst these officials in Tibet. The reality is just
the opposite. At one point, the former Secretary Huyao Bang said:
"You [Chinese-Tibetan officials] have thrown all the money, which the
central government has given to Tibet, into the Yarlung Tsangpo
River". Actually they put this money into their own stomachs, but the
central government just ignores what they are doing in Tibet. As a
result, Tibetans will always stand in opposition to the Chinese
authorities, whatever they bring to Tibet.

In fact, we can say that these Chinese-Tibetan officials, who came
into power during the Chinese Cultural Revolution in Tibet, have
created a private fiefdom that allows them all to speak with the same
voice. Therefore, if the Chinese government does not remove the
stumbling block that they created there will be no hope to resolve
the Tibet issue in the future. Amongst these difficulties, which have
made the Tibet issue very hard to solve, H.H the Dalai Lama and the
Chinese government are not the problem anymore. These Chinese-Tibetan
officials, who are supposed to work on behalf of Tibetans and lead
the Chinese government to a resolution of the Tibet issue, always
approach finding a proper solution from a negative standpoint.

Once, someone asked on a Chinese website: "For many years, we have
not heard of any senior officials in Tibet being interrogated under
the 'two stipulations' by the central government. [The 'two
stipulations' or 'double regulation' (Chin: shuanggui) is a Chinese
political term meaning that if an official is suspected of
corruption, then the authorities will stipulate a specific time and
place to question him or her for a certain period of time] How can
they stay away from corruption under the same blue sky and political system?"

The answer is very obvious. It doesn't mean that there are no
dishonest officials in Tibet, it's because these corrupt officials
are using the 'Dalai Lama Separatist Group' as a shield to gain
benefits from the central government without any problems. Therefore,
the people who don't want to see the Dalai Lama return home are these
corrupt and dishonest Chinese-Tibetan officials in Tibet.

Q: The Chinese government is a signatory to several different
international laws, and the Chinese constitution has clearly
stipulated that every one has the right to make suggestions, and
criticise the government. As you have experienced so many things in
Tibet, how do you think Tibetan intellectuals should understand and
use their rights (from these laws and the constitution) to protect themselves?

Woeser: Everyone knows that freely expressing one's opinion and faith
(if these divert from the authorities' ideology) will definitely lead
to serious punishment even though these are rights clearly anchored
in the Chinese constitution. How this happens depends greatly on each
individual's specific situation. Tibetan intellectuals generally,
except monks, are affiliated to the official structures. The
authorities have the absolute and ultimate power to control the
living space of each Tibetan, and their culture and their freedom of
speech is strictly consigned within this outlined space. Someone
trying to release their own voice, or cross this minefield, will be
regarded as violating a ban, and consequently the authorities' big
stick will land on their head.

Somehow, this is also a kind of warning for others not to do the
same, so you have to follow the authorities' wishes. If you wave the
flag to exalt the authorities, then they will be very happy with you
and reward you with a lot of benefits.

It's very common for people to feel very scared living under such
constraints. But, being afraid, will we do nothing about it? Being
scared, will we have to be silent? No! Reality has taught us that we
have to enhance our bravery and confidence, as we have to fight for
our rights. If we give up our rights, especially the intellectuals
who are responsible for recounting the truth and protecting the
conscience [of our nation], this response will definitely intensify
the suppression of the authorities.

Could we get rid of the political system's grip and gain the right to
free expression? Among Tibetan intellectual circles there are two
different groups: those who write and research in Tibetan, and those
who do so in Chinese. As the first group's share of the cultural
market is very narrow, i.e. only within Tibetan communities, it is
extremely hard for them to survive outside of this official system.
For the second group, since Chinese intellectuals have already formed
a giant Chinese cultural market, it is much easier to survive outside
of the official system. Therefore they have a relatively free space
to express their opinions. It is exactly what I'm doing today. Even
though my income is less compared to those dependent on the official
system, my spirit is experiencing a great freedom. This is essential.

Q: You once wrote: "Tibet! Familiar is your geography, it is also an
ancient geography and, somehow a religious geography too. Today, you
have been printed in a warm light. When I call your name "Tibet", I'm
always filled with gentle and sentimental emotion, as you have taken
a lover in this unstable world!" And also: "An artist is on duty in a
mission to testify and record the reality!" Could you explain to me
whether there is any contradiction between your conviction and
reality? If yes, how can you harmonise and reconcile the
contradiction? What is the mystery?

Woeser: I acknowledge that there is a tension in my relationship with
reality, being an artist and a Buddhist. But it doesn't mean that I
intentionally create contradictions with reality, it's just the
opposite; reality always encroach on my heart. So, I have written
that: "...but to be one of the Tibetans, Tibet's image of greatness
and misery has put on my back enormous weights. 'Glory' and 'apathy'
- I have to choose one or the other!" The glory that I have mentioned
above is simply the glory of writing. This glory is essential, even
if it's very small, but it should stand for the professional morality
of writers.

My experiences, which I gained during my visits in the vastness of
Tibet, have changed me. Gradually, I really wished that my writings
were not only for expressing my faith, but it also could be to show
gratitude to this place where I grew up. This gratitude cannot be
made-up, decorated, beautified, or even concocted by my words; it has
to be faithfully recorded. Milan Kundera wrote: "The first step in
liquidating a people is to erase its memory. Destroy its books, its
culture, its history. Then have somebody write new books, manufacture
a new culture, invent a new history. Before long the nation will
begin to forget what it is and what it was." [The Book Of Laughter
and Forgetting] Tibetans are very familiar today with this kind of
situation. To be a writer, I write to preserve the memory, history
and even our nation as a whole. This is exactly what of our writers
are aiming at. Apart from this, what can we do? I'm just a writer,
writing for memory, writing for conscience, writing for our prayers,
nothing more.

Q: Do you have any requests to make to the international community or
any important statement? For instance, about your freedom of travel.

Woeser: I have been severely punished by the authorities, for simply
trying to practice my rights of free expression. I not only lost my
job, I lost my home and various insurance policies I held were
cancelled, pension was cancelled. Moreover, the authorities always
make some excuses not to issue me a passport, even though I have
applied for one many times over the last three years. As of now, it
seems there is no hope for me to travel.

I'm actually not the only person to be denied a passport, as
generally Tibetans in Tibet are encountering the same problem as me
today. Even though it has become easier to apply for a passport in
Mainland China today, Tibetans have to spend a lot of money and time
to deal with the very complex paperwork involved. As the rights of
travel and migration are fundamental human rights for each person,
they should be respected. But under totalitarian control, Tibetans
are facing a very hard situation in Tibet, as Tibetans' rights have
been stripped in many different ways. So, I really hope that Tibet
gets more attention and help from the international community in the
near future.


In Tibet, Namlo Yak was an official in the Department of Education
besides being a poet. He wrote in Chinese and Tibetan and some of his
poems were published in Tibetan language magazines. He took his main
inspiration from Dhondup Gyal, who is regarded by many as the father
of modern Tibetan literature.

Namlo Yak was imprisoned on 10 May 1993 after being caught with
documents deemed sensitive by the Chinese authorities including a
petition to the Dalai Lama. He was accused of organizing 'counter
revolutionary' activities and was denied access to legal assistance
during his trial. After a year in prison, Namlo Yak managed to get
hold of writing materials smuggled in by the families of his fellow
prisoners. Writing with just the inner ink tubes of ballpoint pens on
cigarette papers, he composed a large collection of poetry. During
his time in four different prisons, Namlo Yak also helped about 500
cellmates, many of them could not read or write, to prepare their
court appeals. He was released on 14 November 1997.

He works as a researcher for the International Campaign for Tibet
(ICT) in Washington D.C. and in his spare time continued to write
poetry; some of his works are being translated into English, French
and Spanish.

Namlo Yak's political positions are moderate. He is committed to the
Dalai Lama's Middle Way approach. Speaking about development, he
says, "no one can say that the Chinese only harmed the Tibetans.
There are some ways in which we Tibetans needed that kind of help.
But only very few Tibetans benefit; the vast majority do not benefit
at all. Of course there are ways in which they have helped Tibet but
the problem is their overall involvement: is it right or wrong?
Compared with the wrong, is it enough? Chinese rule has brought more
harm than good".

While in prison, Namlo Yak befriended his Chinese cellmates. "We were
dependent on each other, just like China and Tibet. It's a natural
phenomenon". The Middle Way, he says, "could show the world how to
solve conflicts peacefully (...). If you are serious about
non-violence, you can only show that conviction through some
sacrifice on your own side".
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