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"I believe that to meet the challenges of our times, human beings will have to develop a greater sense of universal responsibility. It is the foundation for world peace."


February 27, 2009

[Thursday, February 26, 2009 ]

Inside Tibet people have made the decision not to celebrate Losar this
year. It appears to be not just an expression of sorrow for those
Tibetan shot, tortured and imprisoned in last years uprising, but also
an act of defiance against the Chinese government that wants to show the
world that Tibetans enjoy religious and cultural freedoms under its
rule. In exile there has been some debate on whether or not to celebrate
Losar. There are valid arguments on both sides, but then again the logic
of revolution is another thing altogether. When the struggle calls we
can only obey.

Earlier I had written a cultural essay for Losar, but then I decided on
a a more political gift for Rangzen advocates and activists. The
following piece is actually a pamphlet to be distributed on March 10 and
future rallies and meeting, but I thought that those who believe in
Rangzen might enjoying sitting back with a chang-koe and reading it on
Losar day. Most of us have a general idea of the facts that have been
presented before the UN and the world, to show that Tibet was an
independent country before the Communist invasion: treaties, the
Shakabpa passport, the flag and so on. I have tried to provide details
that are probably not that well known but which I hope will edify and
perhaps even cheer and encourage.

I have attempted to be scrupulously honest with the facts and have
provided authentic references for nearly every claim or statement made
in the pamphlet. Since the pamphlet had to be kept short, all the
references, additional material, related documentation, photographs,
maps, illustrations, audio clips and bibliography will be on a website You can access what you want on the section
“Independent Tibet - Some Facts” and clicking on the reference number.

The fully laid-out and illustrated pamphlet can be downloaded (in black
& white or colour) at the website and can be printed at home or at a
commercial printer. Individuals or organization can print and distribute
the pamphlet, and space is provided on the front cover for the
organizations credit line. The website will be up in a few days –
definitely before March 10.

Compiled by Jamyang Norbu for the Rangzen Alliance

Before the Chinese Communist invasion of 1950 Tibet was a fully
functioning and independent state. It threatened none of its neighbors,
fed its population unfailingly, year after year, with no help from the
outside world. Tibet owed no money to any country or international
institutions, and maintained basic law and order. Tibet banned capital
punishment in 1913 (mentioned by a number of foreign travelers [1]) and
was one of the first countries in the world to do so. There is no record
of it persecuting minorities (e.g. Muslims [2]) or massacring sections
of its population from time to time as China and some other countries do
– remember Tiananmen. Although its frontiers with India, Nepal and
Bhutan were completely unguarded, very few Tibetans fled their country
as economic or political refugees. There was not a single Tibetan
immigrant in the USA or Europe before the Communist invasion.

On the dawn of 6th October 1950, the 52nd, 53rd & 54th divisions of the
18th Army[3] of the Red Army (probably over 40,000 troops) attacked the
Tibetan frontier guarded by 3,500 regular soldiers and 2,000 Khampa
militiamen. Recent research by a Chinese scholar reveals that Mao Zedong
met Stalin on 22nd January 1950 and asked for the Soviet air force to
transport supplies for the invasion of Tibet. Stalin replied: “It’s good
you are preparing to attack Tibet. The Tibetans need to be subdued.”[4]

An English radio operator (employed by the Tibetan government) at the
Chamdo front wrote that Tibetan forward defences at the main ferry point
on the Drichu River fought almost to the last man.[5] In the south at
the river crossing near Markham, the Tibetan advance guards fought
heroically but were wiped out, according to an English missionary
there.[6] Surviving units conducted fighting retreats westwards, in good
order. No unit fled or surrendered. Four days into the retreat, one
regiment was overwhelmed and destroyed. Only two weeks after the initial
attack, the Tibetan army surrendered. The biography of a Communist
official states “Many Tibetans were killed and wounded in the Chamdo
campaign.” and “… the Tibetan soldiers fought bravely, but they were no
match for the superior numbers and better training”[7] of the Chinese
forces. According to the only Western military expert who wrote on the
Chinese invasion of Tibet “…the Reds suffered at least 10,000

It was not a peaceful liberation of Tibet as Beijing claims. In 1956 the
Great Khampa Uprising started and spread throughout the country
culminating in the March Uprising of 1959. Guerilla operations only
ceased in 1974. “A conservative estimate would have to be no less than
half-a-million”[9] Tibetans killed in the fighting. Many more died in
the subsequent political campaigns, forced labor camps (laogai) and the
great famine. The revolutionary uprisings throughout Tibet in 2008 and
the brutal Chinese crackdown clearly demonstrate that the struggle
continues today.

The modern Tibetan national flag was adopted in 1916.[10] Its first
appearance before the world was in National Geographic Magazine’s “Flags
of the World” issue of 1934[11] and other publications, and was
reproduced in the early thirties in cigarette card collections in

The flag was probably too new and unknown to appear in the very first
flag issue (1917) of the National Geographic, but Tibet did receive
mention in an article on medieval flags in that same issue.[13]
According to an eminent vexillologist, Professor Lux-Worm, the national
flag of Tibet was based on an older 7th century snow lion standard of
the Tibetan Emperor, Songtsen Gampo.[14] It should be borne in mind that
over 90% of the flags of the nations in the UNO were created after WWII,
including the present national flag of China.

The old Tibetan national anthem or national hymn, Gangri Rawae or “Snow
Mountain Rampart” was composed in 1745 by the (secular) Tibetan ruler
Pholanas.[15] It was recited at the end of official ceremonies and sung
at the beginning of opera performances in Lhasa.[16] When the Tibetan
government came into exile in India, a more modern national anthem,
Sishe Pende (“Universal Peace and Benefits”)[17] was composed. The
lyrics were written by the Dalai Lama’s tutor, Trichang Rimpoche who was
considered a great poet in the classical nyengak (Skt. kaviya) tradititon.

Many pre-1950 maps, globes and atlases showed Tibet as an independent
nation separate from China. Some of the earliest maps on record of Asia
show Tibet (variably spelled as Tobbat, Thibbet, or the Kingdom of
Barantola) as separate from China or Cathay. A map of Asia drawn by the
Dutch cartographer, Pietar van der Aa around 1680 shows Tibet in two
parts but distinct from China;[18] as does a 1700 map drawn by the
French cartographer Guillaume de L’isle, where Tibet is referred to as
the “Kingdom of Grand Tibet.” [19] A map of India, China and Tibet
published in the USA in 1877 represents Tibet as distinct from the two
other nations.[20] An 1827 map of Asia drawn by Anthony Finley of
Philadelphia, clearly shows “Great Thibet” as distinct from the Chinese

Probably the largest stained glass globe in the world (in Boston), based
on the Rand McNally 1934 map of the world, clearly shows Tibet as a
separate nation.[22] (Tibet is in pink above India)
Following the publication of the great atlas commissioned by the Manchu
Emperor Kangxi and created by Jesuit cartographers, some European maps
in the mid-1700s began to depict Tibet as part of China. The Jesuits
could not personally survey Tibet (as they had surveyed China and
Manchuria) since Tibet was not part of the Chinese Empire. So they
trained two Mongol monks in Beijing and sent them to make a secret
survey of Tibet. Similar clandestine surveys of Tibet were conducted by
British mapmakers using trained Himalayan natives and even a Mongol
monk. An American sinologist has observed that, like European colonial
powers, China could be said to have used cartography to further its
“Colonial Enterprise” in Tibet and Korea.[23]

Before the Chinese invasion, Tibet had its own currency based on the Tam
and Srang denomination system. The earliest coinage used in Tibet was
silver and struck in Nepal under a treaty agreement.[24] A joint
Chinese-Tibetan currency (the Ganden Tanka) was issued when Manchu
forces occupied Tibet. After the Chinese army was expelled in 1912,
Tibet minted its own coin using Buddhist and Tibetan designs. Paper
currency was only introduced into Tibet in the early 20th century, but
according to the numismatist Wolfgang Bertsch, these bank notes were
“small works of art.”[25] A unique aspect of Tibetan banknotes was that
the serial numbers were handwritten by a guild of specialist
calligraphists, the epa, to prevent forgery.
Even after the Communist invasion, Tibetans successfully undermined
Chinese efforts to take over its currency. Official Chinese currency
only came into use after the departure of the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan
government from Tibet in March 1959.26

The Tibetan government issued its own passports to travelers entering
its borders or (the few) Tibetans who traveled abroad. Before WWII, the
term passports covered visas and travel documents in general. The
earliest record of a Tibetan passport issued to a foreign traveler is in
1688 to an Armenian merchant, Hovannes (Johannes).[27]

The Tibetan government gave its approval for the first-ever Everest
expedition (1921). Charles Bell, the visiting British diplomat in Lhasa
wrote “I received from the Tibetan Government a passport in official
form, which granted permission for the climbing of Mount Everest.”[28]
The subsequent Everest expeditions of 1922, 1924 and 1936[29] also
received passports from the Tibetan government. Passports were sometimes
issued for scientific undertakings: the Schaeffer expedition of
1939,[30] Tucci’s expedition of 1949 [31] and the plant hunter Frank
Kingdon Ward in 1924.[32]

President Roosevelt’s two envoys to Tibet in 1942 were presented their
passports at Yatung.[33] The Americans Lowell Thomas Jr. and Sr. visited
Tibet in 1949, and were issued “Tibetan passports” at Dhomo. “When the
Dalai Lama’s passport was spread out before us, I could not help
thinking that many Western explorers who had failed to reach Lhasa would
have highly prized a document like this.” [34]
The first modern Tibetan passport [35] with personal information,
photograph and space for visas and endorsements was issued in 1948 to
members of the Tibetan trade mission. It was modeled on the
international one-page fold-out model of 1915. Britain, USA and seven
other countries issued visas and transit visas for this document.

One of the most important treaties between the Tibetan Empire and the
Chinese Empire dates back to AD 821-822. The text, carved in Tibetan and
Chinese on a stone pillar [36] near the Jokhang temple in Lhasa states
that “Great Tibet” and “Great China” would act towards each other with
respect, friendship and equality.

As an independent nation, Tibet entered into treaties with neighboring
states: Bushair 1681, Ladakh 1683 and 1842, Nepal 1856 and so on.

Tibet signed a number of treaties and conventions with Britain
culminating in the Simla Treaty of 1914 by which British India and Tibet
reached an agreement on their common frontier.[37] India’s present-day
claims to the demarcation of its northern border is based on this treaty
which was signed by Tibet – not China.

In January 1913, Tibet and Mongolia signed a treaty in Urga, the
preamble of which reads: “Whereas Mongolia and Tibet having freed
themselves from the Manchu dynasty and separated themselves from China,
have become independent states, and whereas the two States have always
professed one and the same religion, and to the end that their ancient
mutual friendships may be strengthened…”[38] Declarations of friendship,
mutual aid, Buddhist fraternity, and mutual trade etc. follow in the
various articles. The Tibetan word “rangzen” is used throughout to mean

A Tibetan Bureau of Foreign Affairs was established in 1942, which
conducted diplomatic relations (and correspondence[39]) with Britain,
USA, Nepal, independent India and China.

The modern Tibetan postal system was built on the older messenger system
of the early Tibetan Empire and the later Mongol courier system. A Post
and Telegraph Office (dak-tar laykhung) was created in 1920.[40] Postage
stamps of various denominations were indigenously designed and
hand-printed, and which are now collector’s items.[41] Though not a
signatory to the International Postal Treaty, a system was created so
that letters from Tibet could be delivered to foreign addresses, and
letters from abroad be delivered inside Tibet.

Spencer Chapman, visiting Lhasa in 1936, declared that “the postal and
telegraph system is most efficient.”[42] The same system continued for a
period after 1950. The Czech filmmaker Vladimir Cis had a letter from
his family in Prague delivered to him in the wilderness of Tibet by a
postal runner.[43]
A telegraph line from India to Lhasa was completed in 1923, along with a
basic telephone service.[44] Both were open for public use. The Tibetan
capital was electrified in 1927. The work of installing both the
hydroelectric plant and the distribution system was undertaken near
“single-handedly”[45] by a young Tibetan engineer, Ringang. All these
projects were initiated and paid for by the Tibetan government. Radio
Lhasa was launched in 1948 and broadcasted news in Tibetan, English and

The fact that Tibet was a peaceful, independent country is attested to
by the writings of many impartial western observers [47] who not only
visited pre-invasion Tibet, but even lived there for considerable
periods of time – as the titles of some of their memoirs seem to proudly
proclaim: Twenty Years in Tibet (David McDonald)[48], Eight Years in
Tibet (Peter Aufschnieter)[49], Seven Years in Tibet (Heinrich
Harrer)[50]. The premier scholar on Tibet, Hugh Richardson lived for a
total of eight years in Tibet, and his many writings[51] reveal a
country that was functioning, orderly, peaceful and with a long history
of political independence and cultural achievement. Another great
scholar and diplomat, Charles Bell, regarded as the “architect of
Britain’s Tibet policy,” was convinced that Britain and America’s
refusal to recognize Tibetan independence (but which they sometimes
tacitly acknowledged when it was to their advantage) was largely
dictated by their desire “to increase their commercial profits in

It is almost certain that none of the official propagandists who
demonize Tibet in Chinese publications had witnessed life in old Tibet.
In fact, none of Beijing’s Tibet propagandists in the West (Michael
Parenti, Tom Grunfeld, Barry Sautman et al)[53] had visited Tibet before
1980. They often misrepresent the old Tibetan society and government
with select quotes from English journalists and officials (L. A.
Waddell, Percival Landon, Edmund Candler, Captain W.F.T. O’Connor) who
accompanied the British invasion force of 1904, and who sought to
justify that violent imperialist venture into Tibet by demonizing
Tibetan society and institutions.

The only high-ranking Chinese official with scholarly credentials who
spent any length of time in old Tibet was Dr. Shen Tsung-lien,
representative of the Republic of China in Lhasa (1944-1949). In his
book Tibet and the Tibetans, Dr. Shen writes of a nation clearly
distinct from China, and one that “…had enjoyed full independence since
1911.” He writes truthfully of a hierarchical, conservative society
“fossilized many centuries back” but whose people were orderly,
peaceable and hospitable – but also “notorious litigants,” adding that
“few peoples in the world are such eloquent pleaders.” Shen also
mentions “Appeals may be addressed to any office to which the disputants
belong, or even to the Dalai Lama or his regent.”[54]

Reference Notes. (the expanded version will be on the website)

Bell, Charles. Tibet Past and Present. London: Oxford University Press,
1924. See index: “Capital punishment abolished in Tibet, 142, 143, 236.”

Byron, Robert. First Russia then Tibet. London: Macmillan & Co., 1933.
pg 204: “Capital punishment was now abolished.”

McGovern, William. To Lhasa in Disguise. New York: Century Co., 1924. pg

Kingdon-Ward, Frank. In the Land of The Blue Poppies. New York: Modern
Library, 2003. pg 22.

Winnington, Alan. Tibet: The Record of a Journey. London: Lawrence &
Wishart Ltd., 1957.

2 Henry, Gray. Islam in Tibet. Louisville, Kentucky: Fons Vitae, 1997.

Nadwi, Dr. Abu Bakr Amir-uddin. Tibet and Tibetan Muslims, Dharamsala:
Library of TibetanWorks & Archives, 2004.

3 Goldstein, Melvyn. A Tibetan Revolutionary: The Political Life and
Times of Bapa PhuntsoWangye. University of California Press, 2004, pg 137

4 Chang, Jung & Jon Halliday. Mao: The Unknown Story. London: Jonathan
Cape, 2005.

5 Ford, Robert. Captured in Tibet. London: George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd,
1957. pg 158.

6 Bull, Geoffrey T. When Iron Gates Yield. London: Hodder & Stoughton,
1955. pg 130.

7 Goldstein, Melvyn. A Tibetan Revolutionary: The Political Life and
Times of Bapa PhuntsoWangye. University of California Press, 2004, pg 139.

8 O’Ballance, Edgar. The Red Army of China. London: Faber & Faber, 1962.
pg 189-190.

9 Norbu, Jamyang. "The Forgotten Anniversary – Remembering the Great
Khampa Uprising of1956". Thursday, December 07, 2006, Phayul.

10 Tsarong, Dundul Namgyal. In the Service of His Country: The Biography
of Dasang DamdulTsarong Commander General of Tibet. Ithaca: Snow Lion
Publications, 2000. pg 51

11 Grosvenor, Gilbert and William J. Showalter, “Flags of the World”.
The National GeographicMagazine: September, 1934 - Vol. LXVI - No. 3.
Washington, D.C.” National Geographic Society, 1934.

12 Tibet Nationalflagge, Bulgaria Zigarettenfabrik, Dresden,1933. (From
a series non-European countries, pictures 201-400) Courtesy of Prof. Dr.
Jan Andersson.

13 Grosvenor, Gilbert H. “The Heroic Flags of the Middle Ages.” The
National Geographic Magazine: October, 1917 - Vol. Xxxii - No. 4.
Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1917.

14 Lux-Wurm, Pierre C. “The Story of the Flag of Tibet.” Flag Bulletin:
Vol. XII - No. 1. Spring 1973.

Ghang ri rawe kor we shingkham di
Phen thang dewa ma loe jungwae ne
Chenrezig wa Tenzin Gyatso yin
Shelpal se thae bhardu
Ten gyur chik

Circled by ramparts of snow-mountains,
This sacred realm,
This wellspring of all benefits and happiness
Tenzin Gyatso, bodhisattva of Compassion.
May his reign endure
Till the end of all existence
(my translation)

The eminent Tibetan scholar, Tashi Tsering citing the historical work
Bka’ blon rtogs brjod, says that this verse was composed by the Tibetan
ruler, Phola lha nas, (in 1745/46) in praise of the 7th Dalai Lama.
“Reflections on Thang stong rgyal po as the founder of the a lce lha mo
tradition of Tibetan performing arts,”The Singing Mask: Echoes of
Tibetan Opera, Lungta Winter 2001 No 15, eds. Isabelle Henrion-Dourcy
and Tashi Tsering)

16 Audio clip of namthar (opera aria) of National Hymn sung by Techung.
Courtesy of Chaksampa

Sishe phende dhoe gu jung wei ter
Thubten sampel norbu honang bar
Tendro nor dzin gyache kyong wey gon
Trinle kyi rolsto gye
Dorje kham sum tenpey
Chok kun jham tse kyong
Nam khoe gawa gyaden u pang gungla beg
Phuntso deshi nga thang gye
Bhojong cholkha sum gyi kyonla deyden sar pey khyap
Chosi kyi pelon tar
Thubten chochu gyepe dzamling yangpi kyegu shidi pela jor
Bhojong tendro getzen nyi woe kyi
Tashi woe nang humdu tro mi zi
Nachoe munpey yul ley gye gyur chi

The source of temporal and spiritual wealth of joy and boundless benefits
The Wish-fulfilling Jewel of the Buddha’s Teaching, blazes forth radiant
The all-protecting Patron of the Doctrine and of all sentient beings
By his actions stretches forth his influence like an ocean
By his eternal Vajra-nature
His compassion and loving care extend to beings everywhere
May the divinely appointed rule achieve the heights of glory
And increase its fourfold influence and prosperity
May a golden age of joy and happiness spread once more through the three
regions of Tibet
And may its temporal and spiritual splendour shine again
May the Buddha’s Teaching spread in all the ten directions and lead all
in the universe to glorious peace
May the spiritual Sun of the Tibetan faith and People
Emitting countless rays of auspicious light
Victoriously dispel the strife of darkness

Lyrics composed in 1959 by Kyapje Trichang Rinpoche, tutor of His
Holiness the Dalai Lama.

18 Image. A map of Asia drawn by the Dutch cartographer, Pietar van der
Aa around 1680 shows Tibet in two parts but distinct from China.

19 Image. A map of Asia drawn by the French cartographer, Guillaume de
L’isle, around 1700, where Tibet is referred to as the “Kingdom of Grand

20 Image. “Map of Hindoostan, Farther India, China and Tibet”.
Constructed & engraved by W.Williams, Phila. Entered according to Act of
Congress in the year 1877 by S Augustus Mitchell in the Office of the
Librarian of Congress at Washington.

21 Image. An 1827 map of Asia drawn by Anthony Finley of Philadelphia,
clearly showing “Great Tibet” as distinct from the Chinese Empire.

22 The Mapparium, is a thirty-foot stained-glass globe room in the lobby
of the Christian Science Publishing Society in Boston, which gives one a
unique “inside view” of the world. The political boundries are frozen
circa 1935. It was based on Rand McNally’s 1934 map of the world,. At
this size, the scale amounts to approximately 22 miles to the inch.

In the photograph Tibet (pink) can be seen directly at the back above
British India (red) and to the side of China (yellow).

Check URL for history and directions. [Link1] [Link2]

23 Hostetler, Laura. Qing Colonial Enterprise: Ethnography and
Cartography in Early ModernChina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

24 Bertsch, Wolfgang. The Currency of Tibet. Dharamsala: Library of
Tibetan Works & Archives, 2002.

25 Bertsch, Wolfgang. A Study of Tibetan Paper Money: With a Critical
Bibliography, Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, 1997.

26 Rhodes, N.G. “The First Coins Struck in Tibet”. Tibet Journal. Winter
1990: (LTWA), Dharamsala.

27 Richardson, Hugh. “Reflections on a Tibetan Passport”. High Peaks
Pure Earth: Collected Writings on Tibetan History & Culture. London:
Serindia Publications, 1998. pg 482.

28 Bell, Charles. Portrait of a Dalai Lama: The Life and Times of the
Great Thirteenth. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1987. pg 278.

29 Gould, B.J. The Jewel in the Lotus: Recollections of an Indian
Political. London: Chatto & Windus, 1957. pg 210-211.

30 Englehardt, Isrun. Tibet in 1938-39: Photographs from the Ernst
Schafer Expedition to Tibet. Chicago: Serindia, 2007. pg 121.

31 Tucci, Guiseppe. To Lhasa and Beyond. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH,
1983. pg 14-15.

32 Cox, Kennith. Frank Kingdon Ward’s, Riddle of the Tsangpo Gorges.
United Kingdom: Antique Collector’s Club, 2001. pg 75.

33 Tolstoy, Lt.Col. Ilia. “Across Tibet From India To China”. The
National Geographic Magazine. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic
Society, August 1946. “This letter was a piece of red cotton cloth about
16 inches wide and two feet long, to be carried in the bosom or on a
staff by an outrider who would precede the party by one or two days. It
stated that two American officers were en route to visit the Dalai Lama…”

34 Thomas, Lowell Jr. Out of This World: Across the Himalayas to
Forbidden Tibet. New York: The Greystone Press, 1950. pg 79-80.

35 Facsimile of Shakabpa passport

36 Photograph. Treaty Pillar of AD 821-822 within protective enclosure.

37 The Sino-Indian Boundary Question (Enlarged Edition). Peking: Foreign
Language Press, 1962. Photostat of eastern sector of original map of the
McMahon line with signatures and seals of Tibetan and British
plenipotentiaries, Delhi 24 March 1914. Original scale 1:5000,000.

38 Facsimile of the Tibet-Mongolia Treaty of 1913, and English translation.

39 Facsimile of Tibetan Foreign Bureau letter (and English translation)
to Mao Tse-tung in 1949 .

40 Waterfall, Arnold C. The Postal History of Tibet. London: Robson Lowe
Ltd., 1965.

41 Images of Tibetan stamps and covers.

42 Chapman, F. Spencer. Lhasa the Holy City. London: Chatto and Windus,
1940. pg 87.

43 Cis, Peter. Tibet, Through the Red Box. New York: Francis Foster
Books, 1998.

44 David, MacDonald. Twenty Years in Tibet. New Delhi: Vintage Books,
1991. (first published 1932). pg 287.

45 Tsarong, Dundul Namgyal. In the Service of His Country: The Biography
of Dasang Damdul Tsarong Commander General of Tibet. Ithaca: Snow Lion
Publications, 2000. pg 62.

46 Brauen, Martin. Peter Aufschnaiter’s Eight Years in Tibet. Bangkok:
Orchid Press, 2002.

In 1948, Radio Lhasa started the first of its daily broadcasts to the
outside world. At five p.m., the station would go on air. The news was
read in Tibetan, and then in English by Reginald Fox or by Kyibuk, one
of the surviving Rugby students and an official at the Tibetan Foreign
Bureau. Finally, the news was read in Chinese by Phuntsok Tashi Takla,
the Dalai Lama’s brother-in-law. Official announcements were also read
over the radio, as this one prepared by Aufschnaiter:
“We have the honour to announce that Radio Lhasa will broadcast an
announcement of the enthronement of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the
ruler of Tibet, together with a proclamation of the Tibetan government
to the Tibetan people and the world, on Friday 17 November 1950, at 5.45
p.m. Indian Standard Time.”

47 Statement by Westerners who visited Tibet before 1949 (London13
September 1994). Mr Robert Ford, Mrs Ronguy Collectt (daughter of Sir
Charles Bell), Dr Bruno Beger, Mr Henreich Harrer, Mrs Joan Mary Jehu ,
Mr Archibald Jack, Prof. Fosco Maraini and Mr Kazi Sonam Togpyal of

48David, MacDonald. Twenty Years in Tibet. New Delhi: Vintage Books,
1991. (first published 1932). pg 287.

49 Brauen, Martin. Peter Aufschnaiter’s Eight Years in Tibet. Bangkok:
Orchid Press, 2002.

50 Harrer, Heinrich. Seven Years in Tibet. London: Rupert Hart Davis, 1953.

51 Richardson, H.E. High Peaks Pure Earth: Collected Writings on Tibetan
History & Culture. London: Serindia Publications, 1998.

Richardson, H.E. Tibet and Its History. London: Oxford University Press,

Richardson, H.E. and David Snellgrove. A Cultural History of Tibet.
London: George Wiedenfeld & Nicholson,1968.

52 Bell, Charles. Portrait of a Dalai Lama: The Life and Times of the
Great Thirteenth. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1987. pg 396.

53 Norbu, Jamyang. “Running-Dog Propagandists”, [Monday, July
14, 2008 09:37]

54 Shen, Tsung-lien and Shen-chi Liu. Tibet and the Tibetans.
California: Stanford University Press, 1953. pg 112.

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