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"On my part, I remain committed to the process of dialogue. It is my firm belief that dialogue and a willingness to look with honesty and clarity at the reality of Tibet can lead us to a viable solution."

Uneasy Engagement: Tibetan Area a Tinderbox for China-India Tensions

September 4, 2009

by Edward Wong
NYT September 3, 2009

TAWANG, India - This is perhaps the most militarized Buddhist enclave in the
world.

Perched above 10,000 feet in the icy reaches of the eastern Himalayas, the
town of Tawang is not only home to one of Tibetan Buddhism's most sacred
monasteries, but is also the site of a huge Indian military buildup. Convoys
of army trucks haul howitzers along rutted mountain roads. Soldiers drill in
muddy fields. Military bases appear every half-mile in the countryside, with
watchtowers rising behind concertina wire.

A road sign on the northern edge of town helps explain the reason for all
the fear and the fury: the border with China is just 23 miles away; Lhasa,
the Tibetan capital, 316 miles; and Beijing, 2,676 miles.

"The Chinese Army has a big deployment at the border, at Bumla," said Madan
Singh, a junior commissioned officer who sat with a half-dozen soldiers one
afternoon sipping tea beside a fog-cloaked road. "That's why we're here."

Though little known to the outside world, Tawang is the biggest tinderbox in
relations between the world's two most populous nations. It is the focus of
China's most delicate land-border dispute, a conflict rooted in Chinese
claims of sovereignty over all of historical Tibet.

In recent months, both countries have stepped up efforts to secure their
rights over this rugged patch of land. China tried to block a $2.9 billion
loan to India from the Asian Development Bank on the grounds that part of
the loan was destined for water projects in Arunachal Pradesh, the state
that includes Tawang. It was the first time China had sought to influence
the territorial dispute through a multilateral institution. Then the
governor of Arunachal Pradesh announced that the Indian military was
deploying extra troops and fighter jets in the area.

The growing belligerence has soured relations between the two Asian giants
and has prompted one Indian military leader to declare that China has
replaced Pakistan as India's biggest threat.

Economic progress might be expected to bring the countries closer. China and
India did $52 billion worth of trade last year, a 34 percent increase over
2007. But businesspeople say border tensions have infused business deals
with official interference, damping the willingness of Chinese and Indian
companies to invest in each other's countries.

"Officials start taking more time, scrutinizing things more carefully, and
all that means more delays and ultimately more denials, " said Ravi
Bhoothalingam, a former president of the Oberoi Group, the luxury hotel
chain, and a member of the Institute of Chinese Studies in New Delhi.
"That's not good for business."

The roots of the conflict go back to China's territorial claims to Tibet, an
enduring source of friction between China and many foreign nations. China
insists that this section of northeast India has historically been part of
Tibet, and should be part of China.

Tawang is a thickly forested area of white stupas and steep, terraced
hillsides that is home to the Monpa people, who practice Tibetan Buddhism,
speak a language similar to Tibetan and once paid tribute to rulers in
Lhasa. The Sixth Dalai Lama was born here in the 17th century. The Chinese
Army occupied Tawang briefly in 1962, during a war with India fought over
this and other territories along the 2,521-mile border.

More than 3,100 Indian soldiers and 700 Chinese soldiers were killed and
thousands wounded in the border war. Memorials here highlighting Chinese
aggression in Tawang are big draws for Indian tourists.

"The entire border is disputed," said Ma Jiali, an India scholar at the
China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, a
government-supported research group in Beijing. "This problem hasn't been
solved, and it's a huge barrier to China-India relations."

In some ways, Tawang has become a proxy battleground, too, between China and
the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of the Tibetans, who passed
through this valley when he fled into exile in 1959. From his home in the
distant Indian hill town of Dharamsala, he wields enormous influence over
Tawang. He appoints the abbot of the powerful monastery and gives financial
support to institutions throughout the area. Last year, the Dalai Lama
announced for the first time that Tawang is a part of India, bolstering the
India's territorial claims and infuriating China.

Traditional Tibetan culture runs strong in Tawang. One morning in June, the
monastery held a religious festival that drew hundreds from the nearby
villages. As red-robed monks chanted sutras, blew horns and swung incense
braziers in the monastery courtyard, the villagers jostled each other to be
blessed by the senior lamas.

At the monastery, an important center of Tibetan learning, monks express
rage over Chinese rule in Tibet, which the Chinese Army seized in 1951.

"I hate the Chinese government," said Gombu Tsering, 70, a senior monk who
watches over the monastery's museum. "Tibet wasn't even a part of China.
Lhasa wasn't a part of China."

Few expect China to try to annex Tawang by force, but military skirmishes
are a real danger, analysts say. The Indian military recorded 270 border
violations and nearly 2,300 instances of "aggressive border patrolling" by
Chinese soldiers last year, said Brahma Chellaney, a professor of strategic
studies at the Center for Policy Research, a research organization in New
Delhi. Mr. Chellaney has advised the Indian government's National Security
Council.

"The India-China frontier has become more 'hot' than the India-Pakistan
border," he said in an e-mail message.

Two years ago, Chinese soldiers demolished a Buddhist statue that Indians
had erected at Bumla, the main border pass above Tawang, a member of the
Indian Parliament, Nabam Rebia, said in a session of Parliament.

Tawang became part of modern India when Tibetan leaders signed a treaty with
British officials in 1914 that established a border called the McMahon Line
between Tibet and British-run India. Tawang fell south of the line. The
treaty, the Simla Convention, is not recognized by China.

"We recognize it because we agreed to it," said Samdhong Rinpoche, prime
minister of the Tibetan government-in-exile. "If China agreed to it now, it
would be a recognition of the power of the Tibet government at that time."

China has grown increasingly hostile to the Dalai Lama after severe ethnic
unrest in Tibet in 2008. This year, it turned its diplomatic guns on India
over the Tawang issue. China moved in March to block a $2.9 billion loan to
India from the Asian Development Bank, a multination group based in Manila
that has China on its board, because $60 million of the loan had been
earmarked for flood-control projects in Arunachal Pradesh. The loan was
approved in mid-June over China's heated objections.

"China expresses strong dissatisfaction to the move, which can neither
change the existence of immense territorial disputes between China and
India, nor China's fundamental position on its border issues with India,"
Qin Gang, the Foreign Ministry spokesman, said in a written statement.

In May, weeks after China first tried to block the loan, the chief of the
Indian Air Force, Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi, now retired, told a prominent
Indian newspaper that China posed a greater threat than Pakistan.

Another official, J. J. Singh, the governor of Arunachal Pradesh and a
retired chief of the Indian Army, said the next month that the Indian
military was adding two divisions of troops, totaling 50,000 to 60,000
soldiers, to the border region over the next several years. Four Sukhoi
fighter jets were immediately deployed to a nearby air base.

Since 2005, when Prime Minister Wen Jiabao of China visited India, the two
countries have gone through 13 rounds of bilateral negotiations over the
issue. A round was held just last month, with no results.

"The China-India border has got to be one of the most continuously
negotiated borders in modern history," said M. Taylor Fravel, an associate
professor of political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
who is a leading expert on China's borders. "That shows how intractable this
dispute is."

Xiyun Yang contributed research from Beijing.
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