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"As long as human rights are violated, there can be no foundation for peace. How can peace grow where speaking the truth is itself a crime?"

The sound of artifacts disappearing

January 30, 2008

By Craig Childs
Los Angeles Times
January 29, 2008

In old lhasa, holy city of Tibet, stands the sacred Jokhang Temple.
Inside Jokhang is a golden statue of Buddha, the most revered statue in
Tibet. It was brought as a dowry from China in the 7th century, when a
Chinese princess married a Tibetan king. The statue marks not only the
wide-scale introduction of Buddhism to Tibet but a crucial union in a
long history of alliances and wars between two nations.

Pilgrims by the thousands arrive daily in Lhasa, masses of them walking
in the same sacred direction around Jokhang. The fact that the statue is
still there to worship is a surprise. Tibet, like so many places, has
been scraped out like a gourd, its antiquities smuggled away.

There are plenty of buyers, and most of them are not in Lhasa. The
biggest sellers of Asian artwork in Japan, Europe and the U.S. have
dealers handle all the logistics, ushering artifacts through customs so
collectors don't have to.

Last week, federal agents raided four Southern California museums,
seeking artifacts and records linked to the owner of the Silk Roads
Gallery in Los Angeles and to an alleged art smuggler. The gallery has
been a favorite of celebrities and discerning nabobs, offering a large
selection of Ming and Qing dynasty Buddhist statuary as well as pieces
from across East Asia, including Tibet.

How much more of the world's artifacts do we need?

In museum collections across the country, ancient bowls are stacked
because there is no more room. I have walked the astonishing corridors
locked within the American Museum of Natural History in New York and the
overstocked storage space of the Peabody at Harvard University -- four
stories of towering pre-Columbian ceramics. I say enough is enough.

A recent study of collections held in public trust in the United States
found that 40% of all stockpiled artifacts are in unknown condition.
Curators who actually work with their collections -- rather than in
well-paid office positions -- complain of bags splitting open and boxes
decaying. Some artifacts are being "de-accessioned" -- sold to
collectors -- or in some cases, as with samples and specimens, tossed in
the trash.

Shift your focus off the raids in Los Angeles for a moment. Look back to
Tibet, where, for every artifact on display or in storage somewhere else
in the world, there is a hole. A hole in a shrine, a hole in a tomb, a
hole in a people's history. The statue at Jokhang is one of the
fortunate few that remain. Nearly all the rest are replicas.

If a missing artifact has not been smuggled out, it has probably been
destroyed. When the Chinese overthrew Tibet in 1960, tanks leveled the
monasteries.

Looking for tangible remains of Tibetan history, I traveled to a remote
monastery northeast of Lhasa, once one of the oldest in Tibet. In its
day, it was a fortress of golden spires pointing at the sky. Now, you
can buy pieces of it and scavenged statues from shady characters.

What is here now is but a meager reconstruction. I met a young monk who
explained that when Chinese soldiers came in 1960, they killed or
imprisoned the monks living here. But one monk escaped. He fled into the
mountains with a set of 1,000-year-old texts. These were the holiest of
writings in this part of Tibet, the founding prayers from the earliest
days of Tibetan Buddhism. They belonged to this monastery alone.

For decades, the monk kept these texts hidden. In the early 1980s, the
political climate began changing, and the monk reemerged with them. With
the prayers returned, the monastery could be rebuilt.

Now pilgrims have begun to come back, leaving offerings of money and
carved stones. After spending five days in the monastery, I finally
asked to see the ancient texts. The young monk took me into a room
filled with sculptures of gods and kings, all recent purchases from
Nepal and India. He unlocked a small wooden door and pulled out a block
of parchment wrapped in tanned leather. The sheave of long, narrow
parchments were covered front and back with intricate calligraphy, an
ancient script that few but lamas can read.

Something like this would perhaps be auctioned at Sotheby's for several
thousand dollars. The actual price is the history of a monastery and the
lives of monks.

Every artifact that passes through our borders comes with a silent story
such as this. Knowing that we have emptied much of the world of these
precious secrets, this would be a good time to stop and breathe, and to
let go our grip.

When the monk finished showing me the texts, he wrapped them and
returned them to their safe place. There they will remain for as long as
the monks can hold on to them.

Craig Childs is the author, most recently, of "The Animal Dialogues:
Uncommon Encounters in the Wild."
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