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"As long as human rights are violated, there can be no foundation for peace. How can peace grow where speaking the truth is itself a crime?"

Independent Tibet -- Facts

March 5, 2010

by Jamyang Norbu

Compiled by Jamyang Norbu for the Rangzen Alliance
Shadow Tibet
March 4, 2010
<http://www.jamyangnorbu.com/blog/2010/03/04/independent-tibet-%E2%80%93-the-facts>

This is a considerably revised and expanded
version of the document, Losar Gift for Rangzen
Activists,
<http://www.jamyangnorbu.com/blog/2009/02/25/a-losar-gift-for-rangzen-activists/>
that I posted on February 25, 2009.

This version has new information and
illustrations. Last year when I was in India I
gave a talk and powerpoint presentation based on
this essay at a number of Tibetan schools and centers.

I am happy to report that everyone was uplifted
and energized by the sheer volume of indisputable
facts substantiating Tibetan independence.

It may have hit a sore spot in Beijing, though,
for I was denounced at length on
http://bbs.tibet.cn for this specific
presentation. In order to ensure’s Beijing’s
continued "sensitivity" on the issue of Tibetan
independence, a Chinese translation (in
traditional as well as simplified script) will be
up on love <http://tibet.ti-da.net, and other
sites thanks to freedom activist Rosaceae.
A full Tibetan translation will be at
<httP://www.khabdha.org>, and also be published
in Tibet Times <http://www.tibettimes.net/>, all
thanks to Gedun Rabsal la. You can also go on
<http://rangzen.net> for the translations and for
downloading print-ready pdf files to make flyers.
I would like to thank all organizations that
printed and distributed flyers last year, and
would encourage them and others to do so again
this year on March 10th and other occasions. Feel
free to contact me for questions or suggestions.

* * *
FUNCTIONING STATE

Tibet was a fully functioning and independent
state before the Chinese invasion. It threatened
none of its neighbors, fed its population
unfailingly, year after year, with no help from
the outside world, and owed nothing to any
country or international institution. Although
insular, theocratic and not a modern democracy,
Tibet maintained law and order within its borders
and conscientiously observed treaties and
conventions entered into with other nations. It
was one of the earliest countries to enact laws
to protect wildlife and the environment --
recurrently cited in the "Mountain Valley Edicts"
issued since 1642[1], and possibly earlier.[2]

Tibet abolished capital punishment in 1913 (noted
by many foreign travelers)[3] and was one of the
first nations in the world to do so. There is no
record of it persecuting minorities (e.g.,
Muslims[4]) or massacring sections of its
population from time to time as China (remember
Tiananmen) still does. Although Tibet’s frontiers
with India, Nepal and Bhutan were completely
unguarded and Tibetans were "great
travellers"[5], very few Tibetans fled their
country as economic or political refugees. There
was not a single Tibetan immigrant in the USA or
Europe before the Communist invasion.

* * *
FOREIGN MILITARY INVASION NOT "PEACEFUL LIBERATION"

On the dawn of 5th October 1950, the 52nd, 53rd &
54th divisions of the 18th Army[6] of the Red
Army (probably over 40,000 troops) attacked all
along the cease-fire line (mentsam-shagsa) on the
Drichu River guarded by 3,500 regular soldiers
and 2,000 Khampa militiamen. Earlier, in late
1949, Communist forces had entered areas of
Eastern (Kham) and North-Eastern Tibet (Amdo)
then under the military occupation of Nationalist
(Guomindang) supported war-lord regimes. Recent
research by a Chinese scholar reveals that Mao
Zedong met Stalin on 22nd January 1950 and asked
for the Soviet air force to transport supplies
for the invasion of Tibet. Stalin replied: "It’s
good you are preparing to attack Tibet. The Tibetans need to be subdued."[7]

An English radio operator Robert Ford (in Tibetan
government service) at the Chamdo front wrote
that Tibetan forward defenses at the main ferry
point on the Drichu River fought almost to the
last man.[8] In the south, at the river crossing
near Markham, the frontline troops fought
heroically but were wiped out, according to an
English missionary eye-witness.[9] Surviving
units conducted fighting retreats westwards. Four
days into the retreat, one regiment was
overwhelmed and destroyed. Two weeks after the
initial attack, the Tibetan army finally
surrendered. The biography of a Communist
official states "Many Tibetans were killed and
wounded in the Chamdo campaign." and "... the
Tibetan soldiers fought bravely, but they were no
match for the superior numbers and better
training"[10] of the Chinese forces. According to
the only Western military expert who wrote on the
Chinese invasion of Tibet "... the Reds suffered
at least 10,000 casualties."[11] One regiment of
the Red army attacked from Xinjiang, but, in an
account by a Chinese soldier[12], the advance
guard was held back, to a near standstill, by the
nomadic militia of Gertse in Ngari (Western
Tibet). This soldier also writes that the Red
Army leadership could find no Chinese maps of the
region to plan their invasion, and eventually had
to use one published in British-India.

In 1956 the Great Khampa Uprising started and
spread throughout the country culminating in the
March Uprising of 1959. Guerilla operations only
ceased in 1974. "A conservative estimate would
have to be no less than half-a-million"[13]
Tibetans killed in the fighting. Many more died
in the subsequent political campaigns, forced
labor camps (laogai) and the great famine. The
revolutionary uprisings throughout Tibet from
1987 to 1990 and most recently in 2008 "followed
by draconian Chinese reprisals -- clearly
demonstrate that the struggle continues today.

* * *
NATIONAL FLAG

The modern Tibetan national flag was adopted in
1916.[14] Its international debut was in the
National Geographic Magazine’s "Flags of the
World" issue of 1934.[15] It even featured in a
cigarette-card[16] series in Europe in 1933. The
flag was probably too new to appear in the very
first flag issue (1917) of the National
Geographic, but Tibet does receive mention in an
article on medieval flags in that same issue.[17]
According to an eminent vexillologist, Professor
Pierre Lux-Worm, the national flag of Tibet was
based on an older 7th century snow lion standard
of the Tibetan Emperor, Songtsen Gampo.[18] It
should be borne in mind that over 90% of the
flags of the nations in the UNO were created
after WWII, including the national flag of China.
The Tibetan flag made its official international
appearance in 1947, at the First Inter-Asian
Conference, which Mahatma Gandhi addressed. The
Tibetan flag was displayed alongside other flags
of Asian nations, and a circular flag emblem
placed before the Tibetan delegation on the podium.[19]

* * *
NATIONAL ANTHEM

The old Tibetan national anthem or national hymn,
Gangri Rawae or "Snow Mountain Ramparts"[20] was
composed in 1745 by the (secular) Tibetan ruler
Pholanas.[21] It was recited at the end of
official ceremonies and sung at the beginning of
opera performances in Lhasa.[22]

When the Tibetan government came into exile in
India, a more modern national anthem, Sishe
Pende[23] ("Universal Peace and Benefits") was
adopted. The lyrics were composed by the Dalai
Lama’s tutor, Trichang Rimpoche, who was
considered a great poet in the classical nyengak (Skt. kaviya) tradititon.

* * *
MAPS OF TIBET

Most pre-1950 maps, globes and atlases, including
the earliest maps on record of Asia, depict Tibet
as an independent nation, separate from China.
Tibet is variously referred to as Tobbat, Thibbet
or Barantola. A map of Asia drawn by the Dutch
cartographer, Pietar van der Aa around 1680 shows
Tibet in two parts but distinct from China;[25]
as does a 1700 map drawn by the French
cartographer Guillaume de L’isle, where Tibet is
referred to as the "Kingdom of Grand Tibet."[26]
A map of India, China and Tibet published in the
USA in 1877 represents Tibet as distinct from the
two other nations.[27] An 1827 map of Asia drawn
by Anthony Finley of Philadelphia, clearly shows
"Great Thibet" as distinct from the Chinese Empire.[28]

The oldest existing globe in the world, and
possibly the first terrestrial globe ever made,
was constructed by Martin Behaim (geographer to
the king of Portugal) in 1492. It depicts the
world before the discovery of the Americas. Tibet
is clearly identified in German as "Thebet ein
konigreich," or "Tibet, a kingdom."[29]

The largest stained glass globe in the world (in
Boston), based on the Rand McNally 1934 map of
the world, shows Tibet as a separate nation.[30]

Early Chinese maps do not feature Tibet as a part
of China. In a landmark map of China[31] drawn in
1594 by Wang Fen (or Wang Pan?), a senior Ming
Legal Officer, there is a note stating that the
map included the whole of China’s territory. But
no Tibetan areas, not even the eastern-most
regions of Amdo or Kham, appear on the map.

Following the publication of the atlas
commissioned by the Manchu Emperor Kangxi and
created by French Jesuit cartographers, some
Chinese and European maps begin to depict Tibet
as a colony or protectorate of China. The Jesuits
could not personally survey Tibet (as they had
surveyed China and Manchuria), since Tibet was
not part of the Chinese Empire. So they trained
two Mongol monks[32] in Beijing and sent them to
make a secret survey of Tibet. Similar
clandestine surveys of Tibet were conducted by
British mapmakers using trained Himalayan natives
and even a Mongol monk. An American sinologist,
writing on such issues, notes that, like European
colonial powers, China used cartography to
further its "Colonial Enterprise" in Tibet and Korea.[33]

* * *
TIBETAN CURRENCY

Literary sources[34] refer to gold, silver and
copper ingot-coins, even cowrie shells, being
used as currency in ancient Tibet. From circa
1650 silver coins for Tibet (the Bhal-tang) were
struck in Nepal under a treaty agreement.[35] In
1792 following the defeat of Nepal by a joint
Tibetan-Manchu force, coins bearing both Tibetan
and Chinese inscriptions were circulated. But the
Tibetan government continued to issue its own
coin with only Tibetan legends as the Kongpar
tangka (1791-93) and the Gaden tangka
(1836-1911). A silver coin, the Kalsang tangka,
was struck in 1909 possibly to mark the 13th
Dalai Lama’s return to Lhasa from Peking.

After the expulsion of the Chinese army in 1912,
Tibet minted gold, silver and copper coins (in
the "srang" currency unit) using Buddhist and
Tibetan designs and bearing the name of the
Tibetan government. Paper currency was introduced
into Tibet in the early 20th century, and
according to the numismatist Wolfgang Bertsch,
these bank notes were "small works of art."[36] A
unique aspect of Tibetan banknotes was that the
serial numbers were handwritten by a guild of
specialist calligraphists, the "epa," to prevent forgery.

Even after the Communist invasion, Tibetans
successfully resisted Chinese efforts to take
over its currency. Official Chinese currency only
came into use after the flight of the Dalai Lama
and the Tibetan government from Tibet in March
1959.[37] In its entire history, official Chinese
currency had never been used in Tibet before 1959.

* * *
TIBETAN PASSPORTS

The Tibetan government issued its own passports
to travelers entering its borders or (the few)
Tibetans who traveled abroad. Before WWII, the
term "passport" covered visas and travel
documents in general. The earliest record of a
Tibetan passport issued to a foreign traveler is
in 1688 to an Armenian merchant, Hovannes
(Johannes).[38] In 1780 a passport was issued
from Lhasa[39] to Purangir Gossain, an emissary
of the Governor-General of India, Warren
Hastings, who hoped to open up Tibet to trade with the East India Company.

The Tibetan government gave its approval for the
first-ever Everest expedition in 1921. Charles
Bell, the visiting British diplomat in Lhasa
wrote "I received from the Tibetan Government a
passport in official form, which granted
permission for the climbing of Mount
Everest."[40] The subsequent Everest expeditions
of 1924 and 1936[41] also received passports from
the Tibetan government. Passports were sometimes
issued for scientific undertakings: the Schaeffer
anthropological expedition of 1939,[42] Tucci’s
ethnological expedition of 1949 [43] and the
plant hunter Frank Kingdon Ward in 1924.[44]

President Roosevelt’s two envoys to Tibet in 1942
were presented their passports at Yatung.[45] The
Americans Lowell Thomas Jr. and Sr. visited Tibet
in 1949, and were issued "Tibetan passports" at
Dromo. "When the Dalai Lama’s passport was spread
out before us, I could not help thinking that
many Western explorers who had failed to reach
Lhasa would have highly prized a document like this."[46]

Since 1912 passports were also issued to Tibetans
leaving for foreign countries.[47] The first
modern Tibetan passport [48] with personal
information, photograph and space for visas and
endorsements was issued in 1948 to members of the
Tibetan trade mission. It was modeled on the
international one-page fold-out model of 1915.
Britain, the USA and seven other countries issued
visas and transit visas for this document.

* * *
TREATIES

One of the most important treaties between the
Tibetan Empire and the Chinese Empire (concluded
after a decisive Tibetan military victory) dates
back to AD 821-822. The text, in Tibetan and
Chinese was engraved on three stone pillars
(doring). The only surviving pillar is near the
Jokhang temple in Lhasa.[49] One clause affirms
that between the two nations "...the very world
‘enemy’ shall not be spoken." Another article
regarding the frontier (near the present
Gansu-Shaanxi border) makes clear that "All to
the East is the country of Great China; and all
to the West is, without question, the country of Great Tibet.”[50]

This treaty pillar is sometimes mistaken for the
more eye-catching Shol doring before the Potala
Palace, on which is inscribed the record of
another great Tibetan victory, the capture of the
Tang Imperial capital of Changan in 763 AD.

As an independent nation, Tibet entered into
treaties with neighboring states: Bushair 1681,
Ladakh 1683 and 1842, Nepal 1856 and so on.

Tibet signed a number of treaties and conventions
with Britain culminating in the Simla Treaty of
1914 by which British India and Tibet reached an
agreement on their common frontier.[51] India’s
present-day claims to the demarcation of its
northern border (the McMahon Line) is based on
this treaty which was signed by independent Tibet -- not China.

In January 1913, Tibet and Mongolia signed a
treaty in Urga, the preamble of which reads:
"Whereas Mongolia and Tibet having freed
themselves from the Manchu dynasty and separated
themselves from China, have become independent
states, and whereas the two States have always
professed one and the same religion, and to the
end that their ancient mutual friendships may be
strengthened ..."[52] Declarations of friendship,
mutual aid, Buddhist fraternity, and mutual trade
etc., follow in the various articles. The Tibetan
word "rangzen" is used throughout to mean "independence."

* * *
FOREIGN RELATIONS

A Bureau of Foreign Affairs was established in
1909[53] after the 13th Dalai Lama returned to
Lhasa from Peking, and the Tibetan people, in
symbolic rejection of Manchu rule, presented him
with a new national seal.[54] The Foreign Bureau
appears to have been reconstituted in 1941.[55]
It conducted diplomatic relations with Britain,
USA, Nepal, independent India and China. Nepal
set up its legation in Lhasa in 1856, China in
1934 and Britain in 1936. Foreign ministry
officials represented Tibet as an independent
nation in the Inter-Asian Relations Conference
convened in India March 23, 1947 to assess the
status of Asia in the period following WWII.
Tibet was also represented at the Afro-Asian
Conference in 1948. Many participating nations
were yet to be decolonized making Tibet one of
the few established independent nations in that early pan-Asian gathering.[56]

A letter from the Foreign Bureau dated 2nd Nov
1949, to "Mr. Mautsetung," describes Tibet as a
religious nation, independent from "earliest
times," and requests the Communist leader to
"issue strict orders" to his officers not to
cross into Tibetan territory. Regarding Tibetan
territory earlier annexed by China the letter
states that "...the Tibetan government would like
to open negotiations after the settlement of the Chinese Civil War."[57]

* * *
NEUTRALITY IN WORLD WAR II

Tibet was a declared neutral country (bharnas
gyalkhap) during WWII. The Tibetan government
successfully resisted pressure from Britain, a
threat of invasion from China, and even the
personal request of President Roosevelt[58] to
allow construction of a military road through
Tibetan territory, or allow the passage of
military supplies. In a humanitarian gesture,
passage of non-military goods was later
permitted. Tibet granted political asylum to two
Austrian climbers[59] who escaped from a British
POW camp in India. It also provided hospitality
and transport to American flyers whose plane crashed in Tibet in 1944.[60]

* * *
POST & TELEGRAPH SYSTEM

The modern Tibetan postal service was built on
courier systems used during the early Tibetan
Empire and later Mongol Imperial rule. A "pony
express" (atrung) service was used for official
missives, while general mail was carried by a
system of postal-runners (bhangchen or dakpa). A
Central Post and Telegraph Office (dak-tar
laykhung) was created in 1920 in Lhasa[61] which
took over the old postal stations (tasam)
throughout Tibet. Postage stamps of various
denominations were indigenously designed and
hand-printed, and are now collector’s items.
Though not a signatory to the International
Postal Treaty, a system was created so that
letters from Tibet could be delivered to foreign
addresses, [62] and letters from abroad be delivered inside Tibet.

Spencer Chapman, visiting Lhasa in 1936, declared
that, "the postal and telegraph system is most
efficient."[63] The same system continued for
some years after 1950. The Czech filmmaker
Vladimir Cis (working for the Chinese Communist
government) had a letter from his family in
Prague delivered to him in the wilderness of
Tibet by a postal-runner in 1954.[64]

A telegraph line from India to Lhasa was
completed in 1923, along with a basic telephone
service. Both were open for public use. The event
was commemorated in a publication of the Royal
Geographical Society, London.[65]

The Tibetan capital was electrified in 1927. The
work of installing both the hydroelectric plant
and the distribution system was undertaken near
"single-handedly"[66] by a young Tibetan
engineer, Ringang. All these projects were
initiated and paid for by the Tibetan government.

Radio Lhasa was launched in 1948 and broadcasted
news in Tibetan, English and Chinese.[67]

* * *
WITNESSES TO INDEPENDENT TIBET

The fact that Tibet was a peaceful, independent
country is attested to by the writings of many
impartial western observers who not only visited
pre-invasion Tibet, but even lived there for
considerable periods of time -- as the titles of
some of their memoirs seem to proudly proclaim:
Twenty Years in Tibet by David McDonald [68],
Seven Years in Tibet by Heinrich Harrer [69], and
even Eight Years in Tibet, the biography of Peter Aufschnieter.[70]

The premier scholar on Tibet, Hugh Richardson,
lived for nine years in Tibet, and his many
writings[71] reveal a country that was
functioning, orderly, peaceful and with a long
history of political independence and cultural
achievement. He later wrote, "The British
government, the only government among Western
countries to have had treaty relations with
Tibet, sold the Tibetans down the river..."
Richardson also acknowledged that he was
"profoundly ashamed"[72] at the British
government’s refusal to recognize Tibet’s historically independent status."

Another great scholar and diplomat, Charles Bell,
regarded as the "architect of Britain’s Tibet
policy," was convinced that Britain and America’s
refusal to recognize Tibetan independence (but
which they sometimes tacitly acknowledged when it
was to their advantage) was largely dictated by
their desire "to increase their commercial profits in China."[73]

It is almost certain that none of the official
propagandists who demonize Tibet in Chinese
publications had witnessed life in old Tibet. In
fact, none of Beijing’s Tibet propagandists in
the West (Michael Parenti, Tom Grunfeld, Barry
Sautman, Melvin Goldstein, et al)[74] had visited
Tibet before 1980. The first two misrepresent old
Tibet by selectively quoting English journalists
and officials (L. A. Waddell, Percival Landon,
Edmund Candler, Captain W.F.T. O’Connor) who
accompanied the British invasion force of 1904,
and who sought to justify that violent
imperialist venture into Tibet by demonizing Tibetan society and government.

The only high-ranking Chinese official with
scholarly credentials who spent any length of
time in old Tibet was Dr. Shen Tsung-lien,
representative of the Republic of China in Lhasa
(1944-1949). In his book Tibet and the Tibetans,
Dr. Shen writes of a nation clearly distinct from
China, and one that "... had enjoyed full
independence since 1911." He writes truthfully of
a hierarchical, conservative society "fossilized
many centuries back" but whose people were
orderly, peaceable and hospitable -- but also
"notorious litigants," adding that "few peoples
in the world are such eloquent pleaders." Shen
also mentions "Appeals may be addressed to any
office to which the disputants belong, or even to
the Dalai Lama or his regent."[75]

* * *
REFERENCE NOTES:

1. In 1642, the Fifth Dalai Lama issued the
Rilung Tsatsik (ri klung rtsa tshig) generally
translated as the "Mountain Valley Edict."
Another source describes it as a Decree for the
Protection of Animals and the Environment. Since
then, this edict was re-issued annually till
1958. Following the New Year Festivities, copies
of the edict were distributed nationwide, and
were displayed and read out to the assembled
public by district officials. In order that its
message suitably awe and instruct the document
itself was physically impressive: about 3 feet
wide and 6 or 7 feet in length, richly decorated
with auspicious symbols and artwork around the
border, and with the seal of the Dalai Lama at
the bottom. French, Rebecca Redwood. The Golden Yoke, pp 208, 209 & 213.

2. According to the scholar, Tashi Tsering
(director of the Amnye Machen Institute) there
are references to "Mountain Valley" edicts being
issued during the Rimpung dynasty and the Tsangpa kings.

3. Bell, Charles. Tibet Past and Present. London:
Oxford University Press, 1924. See index:
"Capital punishment abolished in Tibet, pp 142, 143, 236."

    Byron, Robert. "First Russia, then Tibet."
London: Macmillan & Co., 1933. pg 204: "Capital punishment was now abolished."

    McGovern, William. "To Lhasa in Disguise."
New York: Century Co., 1924. pp 388-389.

    Kingdon-Ward, Frank. "In the Land of The Blue
Poppies." New York: Modern Library, 2003. pg 22.

    Winnington, Alan. Tibet: The Record of a
Journey. London: Lawrence & Wishart Ltd., 1957. pg 99.

    Brauen, Martin. Peter Aufschnaiter’s "Eight
Years in Tibet." Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2002. pg
77: "There was no death penalty ..."

4. The few books available on Muslims in Tibet
clearly reveal the tolerance of Tibetan
government, church and society for this minority group:

    Henry, Gray. Islam in Tibet. Louisville, Kentucky: Fons Vitae, 1997.

    Nadwi, Dr. Abu Bakr Amir-uddin, "Tibet and
Tibetan Muslims." Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, 2004.

5. The plant hunter Kingdon-Ward writing of
Khampas mentions that "the men are great
travellers and leave their wives behind for
months at a time, and these good folk solace
themselves as best they can with other
travellers.” Kingdon Ward sees this contributing
to the Tibetan custom of polyandry. He sees
supporting evidence for his conjecture in the
Lutzu who though in contact with Tibetans “…as
far as I am aware, are monogamous, which adds
weight of negative evidence in favour of the
above theory, since the tribes are notorious stay-at-homes."

    Kingdon-Ward, Frank. (ed. Tom Christopher)
"In the Land of The Blue Poppies." New York: Modern Library, 2003. pg 175

6. Goldstein, Melvyn. "A Tibetan Revolutionary:
The Political Life and Times of Bapa Phuntso
Wangye." University of California Press, 2004, pg 137.

7. Chang, Jung & Jon Halliday, "Mao: The Unknown
Story." London: Jonathan Cape, 2005.

8. Ford, Robert, "Captured in Tibet." London:
George G. Harrap & Co., Ltd, 1957. pg 158.

9. Bull, Geoffrey T, "When Iron Gates Yield."
London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1955. pg 130.

10. Goldstein, Melvyn, "A Tibetan Revolutionary:
The Political Life and Times of Bapa Phuntso
Wangye." University of California Press, 2004, pg 139.

11. O’Ballance, Edgar, "The Red Army of China."
London: Faber & Faber, 1962. pg 189-190.

12. Kong Fei-tsi (?), tse srog gi bhul skyes
(Gift of Life) translated by Wanglag, Tibetan
Peoples Publishing House, Lhasa, 2001.

13. Norbu, Jamyang. "The Forgotten Anniversary --
Remembering the Great Khampa Uprising of1956?.
Thursday, December 07, 2006, Phayul.com.

14. Tsarong, Dundul Namgyal. In the Service of
His Country: The Biography of Dasang Damdul
Tsarong Commander General of Tibet. Ithaca: Snow
Lion Publications, 2000. pg 51.

15. Grosvenor, Gilbert and William J. Showalter,
"Flags of the World." The National Geographic
Magazine: September, 1934 -- Vol. LXVI - No. 3.
Washington, D.C.” National Geographic Society, 1934.

16. Tibet Nationalflagge, Bulgaria
Zigarettenfabrik, Dresden,1933. (From a series
non-European countries, pictures 201-400) From
the collection of Prof. Dr. Jan Andersson of
Germany, and reproduced with his kind permission.

17. Grosvenor, Gilbert H. "The Heroic Flags of
the Middle Ages." The National Geographic
Magazine: October, 1917 -- Vol. XXXII -- No. 4.
Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1917.

18. Lux-Wurm, Pierre C., "The Story of the Flag
of Tibet." Flag Bulletin: Vol. XII - No. 1. Spring 1973.

19. On 23 March 1947 the Inter-Asian Relations
Conference was convened in India to assess the
status of Asia in the period following WWII. At
this gathering, Tibet was represented as an
independent nation, as evidenced by the country’s
delineation on a conference map and the first
appearance of the Tibetans’ national flag. The
Chinese (Guomindang) were furious and protested
formally to the organizers of the conference. The
Tibetan flag was hoisted and also a flag emblem
was displayed before the delegates on the dias.
Mahatma Gandhi addressed this conference. The
representatives of the Tibetan foreign bureau,
Theiji Sampo Tenzin Thondup, Khenchung Lobsang
Wangyal and Kyibug Wangdue Norbu (translator)
also took part in the Afro-Asian Conference held
in Delhi in 1948. Interestingly many of the
participating states were yet to be decolonized
making Tibet one of the few established
independent nations at this pan-Asian gathering.

(Photograph of conference)

20. OLD TIBETAN NATIONAL HYMN

     Ghang ri rawe kor we shingkham di
     Phen thang dewa ma loe jungwae ne
     Chenrezig wa Kalsang Gyatso yin
     Shelpal se thae bhardu
     Ten gyur chik

     Circled by ramparts of snow-mountains -- this sacred realm,
     This wellspring of all benefits and happiness.
     Kalsang Gyatso, bodhisattva of compassion
     May he reign till the end of all existence

     (translated by Jamyang Norbu)

21. The eminent Tibetan scholar, Tashi Tsering
citing the historical work Bka’ blon rtogs brjod,
says that this verse was composed by the Tibetan
ruler, Phola lha nas, (in 1745/46) in praise of
the 7th Dalai Lama. "Reflections on Thang stong
rgyal po as the founder of the a lce lha mo
tradition of Tibetan performing arts," The
Singing Mask: Echoes of Tibetan Opera, Lungta,
Winter 2001 No 15, eds. Isabelle Henrion-Dourcy and Tashi Tsering)
     Woodblock reproduction of Pholanas courtesy of Tashi Tsering.

22. Audio clip of namthar (opera aria) of
National Hymn sung by Techung accompanied by Nima
Gyalpo, courtesy of Chaksampa Opera Company, San Francisco.

23. Lyrics composed in 1959 by Kyapje Trichang
Rinpoche, tutor of His Holiness the Dalai Lama at Mussoorie, U.P.
     The Collected Works of the Glorious Master
of the Dharma, Yongzin Trichang Vajradhara
(yongjog tempae ngadak kyapche yongzin trichang
dorjee chang chempoe sungbum), published by
Mongolian Lama Guru Deva, New Delhi, Vol Gha, pg 299.

24. [Image] A map of Asia drawn by the Dutch
cartographer, Pietar van der Aa around 1680 shows
Tibet in two parts but distinct from China.

25. [Image] A map of Asia drawn by the French
cartographer, Guillaume de L’isle, around 1700,
where Tibet is referred to as the "Kingdom of Grand Tibet."

26. [Image] "Map of Hindoostan, Farther India,
China and Tibet." Constructed & engraved by
W.Williams, Phila. Entered according to Act of
Congress in the year 1877 by S Augustus Mitchell
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

27. [Image] An 1827 map of Asia drawn by Anthony
Finley of Philadelphia, clearly showing "Great
Tibet" as distinct from the Chinese Empire.

28. Ravenstein, Ernest George, (1834-1913)
"Martin Behaim: His Life and his Globe." (With a
facsimile of the globe printed in colours, eleven
maps and seventeen illustrations), G. Philip & Son, Ltd., London. 1908.

     This globe was kindly brought to the
compiler’s attention by Robert Palais of San
Francisco, who provided in (JN’s blog) various
sources where information on the Behaim globe could be obtained:

     * University of Utah <http://www.math.utah.edu/~palais/behaim/>
     * Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Behaim>
     * Henry Davis Consulting (image)
<http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/LMwebpages/258.html>
     * Henry Davis Consulting (description)
<http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/LMwebpages/258mono.html>

29. The Mapparium, is a thirty-foot stained-glass
globe room in the lobby of the Christian Science
Publishing Society in Boston, which gives one a
unique "inside view" of the world. The political
boundaries are frozen circa 1935. It was based on
Rand McNally’s 1934 map of the world. At this
size, the scale amounts to approximately 22 miles
to the inch. In the photograph Tibet (pink) can
be seen directly at the back above British India
(red) and to the side of China (yellow). Check
these websites for history and directions.
     * roadsideamerica.com <http://www.roadsideamerica.com/story/11455>
     * designorati.com
<http://designorati.com/articles/t1/cartography/329/mary-baker-eddys-marvelous-mapparium.php>

30. Norbu, Dawa. "China’s Tibet Policy." Richmond
Curzon, 2001, Information Office. Mongols and Tibet. (Image)

31. According to the Tibetan researcher Lugar Jam
(conversation on July 2009) the names of the two
Mongol monks sent by Jesuit cartographers to
Tibet were Tsultrim Sangpo (churbizanbo) and Lhamo Tempa (lanbenzhanba).

32. Hostetler, Laura, "Qing Colonial Enterprise:
Ethnography and Cartography in Early Modern
China." Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

33. For instance we have, from the biography of
Milarepa, the story of Milarepa’s mother sewing
seven pieces of gold in a traveller’s cloak, to secretly send to her son.

34. Bertsch, Wolfgang, "The Currency of Tibet."
Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, 2002.

35. Bertsch, Wolfgang, "A Study of Tibetan Paper
Money: With a Critical Bibliography," Dharamsala:
Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, 1997.

36. Rhodes, N.G., "The First Coins Struck in
Tibet." Tibet Journal. Winter 1990: (LTWA), Dharamsala.

37. Richardson, Hugh. "Reflections on a Tibetan
Passport." High Peaks Pure Earth: Collected
Writings on Tibetan History & Culture. London:
Serindia Publications, 1998. pg 482.

38. Das, Sarat Chandra, "An Introduction the the
Grammar of the Tibetan Language," Motilala
Banarasidas, Delhi 1972. Appendix 1, pg 4-5.
(Reproduction of the Lhasa and Shigatse passports issued to Purangir Gossain.)

39. Bell, Charles, "Portrait of a Dalai Lama: The
Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth." Boston:
Wisdom Publications, 1987. pg 278.

    (Facsimile of 1st Everest passport; courtesy
of Rinchen Dorjay who photographed it at the
museum of the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute, Darjeeling.)

40. Gould, B.J., "The Jewel in the Lotus:
Recollections of an Indian Political." London:
Chatto & Windus, 1957. pg 210-211.

     (Facsimile of Passport. Photograph of Rai
Bahadur Norbu Thondup holding the passport.)

41. Englehardt, Isrun, Tibet in 1938-39:
Photographs from the Ernst Schafer Expedition to
Tibet. Chicago: Serindia, 2007. pg 121. (Facsimile of Passport.)

42. Tucci, Guiseppe, "To Lhasa and Beyond." New
Delhi: Oxford and IBH, 1983. pg 14-15. (Facsimile of passport.)

43. Cox, Kennith. Frank Kingdon Ward’s, "Riddle
of the Tsangpo Gorges." United Kingdom: Antique Collector’s Club, 2001. pg 75.

44. Tolstoy, Lt.Col. Ilia. "Across Tibet from
India to China." The National Geographic
Magazine. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic
Society, August 1946. "This letter was a piece of
red cotton cloth about 16 inches wide and two
feet long, to be carried in the bosom or on a
staff by an outrider who would precede the party
by one or two days. It stated that two American
officers were en route to visit the Dalai Lama"

45. Thomas, Lowell Jr. "Out of This World: Across
the Himalayas to Forbidden Tibet." New York: The
Greystone Press, 1950. pg 79-80. (Facsimile of
passport and photograph of Lowell Thomas receiving his passport at Yatung.)

46. Bell, Charles. "Portrait of a Dalai Lama: The
Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth." Boston:
Wisdom Publications, 1987. p 420. (Bell mentions
that a passport was issued to Diwan Bahadur Phala who visited England in 1925.)

47. Facsimile of Shakabpa passport, courtesy of Friends of Tibet, India.

48. Richardson, Hugh. "High Peaks Pure Earth:
Collected Writings on Tibetan History & Culture."
London: Serindia Publications, 1998. Plate 10.
(Photograph of Treaty Pillar of AD 821-822 within protective enclosure.)

49. Richardson, H.E., "Tibet and Its History."
London: Oxford University Press, 1962. pp. 244-245

50. "The Sino-Indian Boundary Question" (Enlarged
Edition). Peking: Foreign Language Press,1962.
Photostat of eastern sector of original map of
the McMahon line with signatures and seals of
Tibetan and British plenipotentiaries, Delhi 24
March 1914. Original scale 1:5000,000.

51. Facsimile of the Tibet-Mongolia Treaty of
1913. Translation in Richardson, H.E. Tibet and
Its History. London: Oxford University Press, 1962. pp 265-267.

52. Shakabpa, Tsepon W.D., "Tibet: A Political
History." Yale University Press, 1967. pg 227.

53. Shakabpa, Tsepon W.D., "Tibet: A Political
History." Yale University Press, 1967. Frontispiece.

54. Neushar, Thupten Tharpa. bhod shung tse
yiktsang dang chegyal las khung. (The "Peak"
Secretariate and the Foreign Bureau of the
Tibetan Government). Oral History Series No: 5,
Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamshala,
1998. Neushar states that the Foreign Bureau was
set up during the Taktra Regency in the iron
serpent year (1941). The office was located
south-west of the Tsuglagkhang, and headed by
Dsazak Surkhang (zurpa) Wangchen Tseten, and Ta
Lama Kunchok Jungnas. Shakabpa in his History
claims that the Foreign Bureau was created around 1913.

55. On 23 March 1947 the Inter-Asian Relations
Conference was convened in India to assess the
status of Asia in the period following WWII. At
this gathering, Tibet was represented as an
independent nation, as evidenced by the country’s
delineation on a conference map and the first
appearance of the Tibetans’ national flag. The
Chinese (Guomindang) were furious and protested
formally to the organizers of the conference. The
Tibetan flag was hoisted and also a flag emblem
displayed before the delegates on the dias.
Mahatma Gandhi addressed this conference. The
representatives of the Tibetan foreign bureau,
Theiji Sampo Tenzin Thondup, Khenchung Lobsang
Wangyal and Kyibug Wangdue Norbu (translator)
also took part in the Afro-Asian Conference held
in Delhi in 1948. Interestingly, many of the
participants were yet to be decolonized making
Tibet one of the few established independent
nations at this early pan-Asian gathering. [Photograph of conference]

56. Facsimile. Letter courtesy of the Amnye Machen Institute, Dharamshala.

57. Tolstoy, Lt.Col. Ilia, "Across Tibet From
India To China." The National Geographic
Magazine. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, August 1946.

58. Harrer, Heinrich. Seven Years in Tibet. London: Rupert Hart Davis,1953.

     Brauen, Martin. Peter Aufschnaiter’s Eight
Years in Tibet. Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2002.

59. Starks, Richard & Murcutt, Miriam. "Lost in
Tibet: The Untold Story of Give American Airmen,
a Doomed Plane and the Will to Survive." The L:yons Press, Connecticut, 2004.

60. Waterfall, Arnold C., "The Postal History of
Tibet." London: Robson Lowe Ltd., 1965.

61. Photographs of letter to Mr.A.C. Rosslier of
Newark, NJ, and various Tibetan stamps.

62. Chapman, F. Spencer, "Lhasa the Holy City."
London: Chatto and Windus, 1940. pg 87.

63. Cis, Peter, "Tibet, Through the Red Box." New
York: Francis Foster Books, 1998.

64. King, W.H., "The Telegraph to Lhasa," The
Geographical Journal, Vol. 63 (June 1924). pp.
527-531. Published by: Blackwell  Publishing on
behalf of the Royal Geographical Society (with
the Institute of British Geographers).

     Group photograph of officials, engineers,
crew and local laborers involved with the
telegraph line. Sitting from left to right: Mr.
Sonam Tsering of Kalimpong (sent on deputation by
Indian Postal Dept.), first telegraph master of
Lhasa. Mr. Ringang, Mr. W.H. King (chief
engineer), Mr.W.P.Rosemeyer (assistant engineer),
and Mr Kyibuk, official interpreter. The
officials Kesura and Jorgay were also employed as
supervisors, but are not in the photograph.

65. Tsarong, Dundul Namgyal. "In the Service of
His Country: The Biography of Dasang Damdul
Tsarong Commander General of Tibet." Ithaca: Snow
Lion Publications, 2000. pg 62.

66. In 1948, Radio Lhasa started the first of its
daily broadcasts to the outside world. At five
p.m., the station would go on air. The news was
read in Tibetan, and then in English by Reginald
Fox or by Kyibuk, one of the surviving Rugby
students and an official at the Tibetan Foreign
Bureau. Finally, the news was read in Chinese by
Phuntsok Tashi Takla, the Dalai Lama’s
brother-in-law. Official announcements were also
read over the radio, as this one prepared by
Aufschnaiter: “We have the honour to announce
that Radio Lhasa will broadcast an announcement
of the enthronement of His Holiness the Dalai
Lama, the ruler of Tibet, together with a
proclamation of the Tibetan government to the
Tibetan people and the world, on Friday 17
November 1950, at 5.45 p.m. Indian Standard
Time.” (Brauen, Martin. Peter Aufschnaiter’s
Eight Years in Tibet. Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2002.)

67. David, MacDonald, "Twenty Years in Tibet."
New Delhi: Vintage Books, 1991. (first published in 1932).

68. Harrer, Heinrich, "Seven Years in Tibet." London: Rupert Hart Davis, 1953.

69. Brauen, Martin. "Peter Aufschnaiter’s Eight
Years in Tibet." Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2002.

70. Richardson, H.E., "Tibet and Its History.
London: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Richardson, H.E., and David Snellgrove. A
Cultural History of Tibet. London: George Wiedenfeld & Nicholson,1968.

Richardson, H.E., High Peaks Pure Earth:
Collected Writings on Tibetan History & Culture.
London: Serindia Publications, 1998.

71. On Hugh Edward Richardson, Wikipedia
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_E._Richardson>

72. Bell, Charles, "Portrait of a Dalai Lama: The
Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth." Boston:
Wisdom Publications, 1987. pg 396.

73. Norbu, Jamyang, "Running-Dog Propagandists"
Phayul.com, [Monday, July 14, 2008]
     <http://www.phayul.com/news/article.aspx?id=21945&article=Running-Dog+Propagandists+-+Jamyang+Norbu&t=1&c=4>

74. Shen, Tsung-lien and Shen-chi Liu. "Tibet and
the Tibetans." California: Stanford University Press, 1953, pg 112.
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