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"As long as human rights are violated, there can be no foundation for peace. How can peace grow where speaking the truth is itself a crime?"

Memorandum on Genuine Autonomy for the Tibetan People

January 28, 2010

Central Tibetan Administration (CTA)
November 2008


Since the renewal of direct contact with the
Central Government of the People's Republic of
China (PRC) in 2002, extensive discussions have
been held between the envoys of His Holiness the
14th Dalai Lama and representatives of the
Central Government. In these discussions we have
put forth clearly the aspirations of Tibetans.
The essence of the Middle Way Approach is to
secure genuine autonomy for the Tibetan people
within the scope of the Constitution of the PRC.
This is of mutual benefit and based on the
long-term interest of both the Tibetan and
Chinese peoples. We remain firmly committed not
to seek separation or independence. We are
seeking a solution to the Tibetan problem through
genuine autonomy, which is compatible with the
principles on autonomy in the Constitution of the
People’s Republic of China (PRC). The protection
and development of the unique Tibetan identity in
all its aspects serves the larger interest of
humanity in general and those of the Tibetan and Chinese people in particular.

During the seventh round of talks in Beijing on 1
and 2 July 2008, the Vice Chairman of the Chinese
People’s Political Consultative Conference and
the Minister of the Central United Front Work
Department, Mr. Du Qinglin, explicitly invited
suggestions from His Holiness the Dalai Lama for
the stability and development of Tibet. The
Executive Vice Minister of the Central United
Front Work Department, Mr. Zhu Weiqun, further
said they would like to hear our views on the
degree or form of autonomy we are seeking as well
as on all aspects of regional autonomy within the
scope of the Constitution of the PRC.

Accordingly, this memorandum puts forth our
position on genuine autonomy and how the specific
needs of the Tibetan nationality for autonomy and
self-government can be met through application of
the principles on autonomy of the Constitution of
the People’s Republic of China, as we understand
them. On this basis, His Holiness the Dalai Lama
is confident that the basic needs of the Tibetan
nationality can be met through genuine autonomy within the PRC.

The PRC is a multi-national state, and as in many
other parts of the world, it seeks to resolve the
nationality question through autonomy and the
self-government of the minority
nationalities.  The Constitution of the PRC
contains fundamental principles on autonomy and
self-government whose objectives are compatible
with the needs and aspirations of the
Tibetans.  Regional national autonomy is aimed at
opposing both the oppression and the separation
of nationalities by rejecting both Han Chauvinism
and local nationalism. It is intended to ensure
the protection of the culture and the identity of
minority nationalities by powering them to become masters of their own affairs.

To a very considerable extent Tibetan needs can
be met within the constitutional principles on
autonomy, as we understand them. On several
points, the Constitution gives significant
discretionary powers to state organs in the
decision-making and on the operation of the
system of autonomy. These discretionary powers
can be exercised to facilitate genuine autonomy
for Tibetans in ways that would respond to the
uniqueness of the Tibetan situation. In
implementing these principles, legislation
relevant to autonomy may consequently need to be
reviewed or amended to respond to the specific
characteristics and needs of the Tibetan
nationality. Given good will on both sides,
outstanding problems can be resolved within the
constitutional principles on autonomy. In this
way national unity and stability and harmonious
relations between the Tibetan and other nationalities will be established.


Tibetans belong to one minority nationality
regardless of the current administrative
division.  The integrity of the Tibetan
nationality must be respected. That is the
spirit, the intent and the principle underlying
the constitutional concept of national regional
autonomy as well as the principle of equality of nationalities.

There is no dispute about the fact that Tibetans
share the same language, culture, spiritual
tradition, core values and customs, that they
belong to the same ethnic group and that they
have a strong sense of common identity. Tibetans
share a common history and despite periods of
political or administrative divisions, Tibetans
continuously remained united by their religion,
culture, education, language, way of life and by
their unique high plateau environment.

The Tibetan nationality lives in one contiguous
area on the Tibetan plateau, which they have
inhabited for millennia and to which they are
therefore indigenous. For purposes of the
constitutional principles of national regional
autonomy Tibetans in the PRC in fact live as a
single nationality all over the Tibetan plateau.

On account of the above reasons, the PRC has
recognised the Tibetan nationality as one of the 55 minority nationalities.


Tibetans have a rich and distinct history,
culture and spiritual tradition all of which form
valuable parts of the heritage of humanity. Not
only do Tibetans wish to preserve their own
heritage, which they cherish, but equally they
wish to further develop their culture and
spiritual life and knowledge in ways that are
particularly suited to the needs and conditions
of humanity in the 21st century.

As a part of the multi-national state of the PRC,
Tibetans can benefit greatly from the rapid
economic and scientific development the country
is experiencing. While wanting to actively
participate and contribute to this development,
we want to ensure that this happens without the
people losing their Tibetan identity, culture and
core values and without putting the distinct and
fragile environment of the Tibetan plateau, to
which Tibetans are indigenous, at risk.

The uniqueness of the Tibetan situation has
consistently been recognised within the PRC and
has been reflected in the terms of the ‘17 Point
Agreement’ and in statements and policies of
successive leaders of the PRC since then, and
should remain the basis for defining the scope
and structure of the specific autonomy to be
exercised by the Tibetan nationality within the
PRC. The Constitution reflects a fundamental
principle of flexibility to accommodate special
situations, including the special characteristics
and needs of minority nationalities.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s commitment to seek
a solution for the Tibetan people within the PRC
is clear and unambiguous.  This position is in
full compliance and agreement with paramount
leader Deng Xiaoping's statement in which he
emphasised that except for independence all other
issues could be resolved through dialogue.
Whereas, we are committed, therefore, to fully
respect the territorial integrity of the PRC, we
expect the Central Government to recognise and
fully respect the integrity of the Tibetan
nationality and its right to exercise genuine
autonomy within the PRC. We believe that this is
the basis for resolving the differences between
us and promoting unity, stability and harmony among nationalities.

For Tibetans to advance as a distinct nationality
within the PRC, they need to continue to progress
and develop economically, socially and
politically in ways that correspond to the
development of the PRC and the world as a whole
while respecting and nurturing the Tibetan
characteristics of such development. For this to
happen, it is imperative that the right of
Tibetans to govern themselves be recognised and
implemented throughout the region where they live
in compact communities in the PRC, in accordance
with the Tibetan nationality’s own needs, priorities and characteristics.

The Tibetan people's culture and identity can
only be preserved and promoted by the Tibetans
themselves and not by any others.  Therefore,
Tibetans should be capable of self-help,
self-development and self-government, and an
optimal balance needs to be found between this
and the necessary and welcome guidance and
assistance for Tibet from the Central Government
and other provinces and regions of the PRC.

Subject Matters of Self-government

1)  Language
Language is the most important attribute of the
Tibetan people’s identity. Tibetan is the primary
means of communication, the language in which
their literature, their spiritual texts and
historical as well as scientific works are
written. The Tibetan language is not only at the
same high level as that of Sanskrit in terms of
grammar, but is also the only one that has the
capability of translating from Sanskrit without
an iota of error. Therefore, Tibetan language has
not only the richest and best-translated
literatures, many scholars even contend that it
has also the richest and largest number of
literary compositions. The Constitution of the
PRC, in Article 4, guarantees the freedom of all
nationalities “to use and develop their own spoken and written languages ...”.

In order for Tibetans to use and develop their
own language, Tibetan must be respected as the
main spoken and written language. Similarly, the
principal language of the Tibetan autonomous areas needs to be Tibetan.

This principle is broadly recognised in the
Constitution in Article 121, which states, "the
organs of self-government of the national
autonomous areas employ the spoken and written
language or language in common use in the
locality.”  Article 10 of the Law on Regional
National Autonomy (LRNA) provides that these
organs “shall guarantee the freedom of the
nationalities in these areas to use and develop
their own spoken and written languages....”

Consistent with the principle of recognition of
Tibetan as the main language in Tibetan areas,
the LRNA (Article 36) also allows the autonomous
government authorities to decide on “the language
used in instruction and enrolment procedures”
with regard to education.  This implies
recognition of the principle that the principal medium of education be Tibetan.

2)  Culture
The concept of national regional autonomy is
primarily for the purpose of preservation of the
culture of minority nationalities. Consequently,
the constitution of PRC contains references to
cultural preservation in Articles 22, 47 and 119
as also in Article 38 of the LRNA. To Tibetans,
Tibetan culture is closely connected to our
religion, tradition, language and identity, which
are facing threats at various levels. Since
Tibetans live within the multinational state of
the PRC, this distinct Tibetan cultural heritage
needs protection through appropriate constitutional provisions.

3)  Religion
Religion is fundamental to Tibetans and Buddhism
is closely linked to their identity. We recognise
the importance of separation of church and state,
but this should not affect the freedom and
practice of believers. It is impossible for
Tibetans to imagine personal or community freedom
without the freedom of belief, conscience and
religion. The Constitution recognises the
importance of religion and protects the right to
profess it.  Article 36 guarantees all citizens
the right to the freedom of religious belief. No
one can compel another to believe in or not to
believe in any religion. Discrimination on the basis of religion is forbidden.

An interpretation of the constitutional principle
in light of international standard would also
cover the freedom of the manner of belief or
worship. The freedom covers the right of
monasteries to be organised and run according to
Buddhist monastic tradition, to engage in
teachings and studies, and to enroll any number
of monks and nuns or age group in accordance with
these rules. The normal practice to hold public
teachings and the empowerment of large gatherings
is covered by this freedom and the state should
not interfere in religious practices and
traditions, such as the relationship between a
teacher and his disciple, management of monastic
institutions, and the recognition of reincarnations.

4)  Education
The desire of Tibetans to develop and administer
their own education system in cooperation and in
coordination with the central government’s
ministry of education is supported by the
principles contained in the Constitution with
regard to education. So is the aspiration to
engage in and contribute to the development of
science and technology. We note the increasing
recognition in international scientific
development of the contribution which Buddhist
psychology, metaphysics, cosmology and the
understanding of the mind is making to modern science.

Whereas, under Article 19 of the Constitution the
state takes on the overall responsibility to
provide education for its citizens, Article 119
recognises the principle that “[T]he organs of
self-government of the national autonomous areas
independently administer educational .... affairs
in their respective areas...”  This principle is
also reflected in Article 36 of the LRNA.

Since the degree of autonomy in decision-making
is unclear, the point to be emphasised is that
the Tibetan need to exercise genuine autonomy
with regard to its own nationality’s education
and this is supported by the principles of the constitution on autonomy.

As for the aspiration to engage in and contribute
to the development of scientific knowledge and
technology, the Constitution (Article 119) and
the LRNA (Article 39) clearly recognise the right
of autonomous areas to develop scientific knowledge and technology.

5)  Environment Protection
Tibet is the prime source of Asia's great rivers.
It also has the earth's loftiest mountains as
well as the world's most extensive and highest
plateau, rich in mineral resources, ancient
forests, and many deep valleys untouched by human disturbances.

This environmental protection practice was
enhanced by the Tibetan people's traditional
respect for all forms of life, which prohibits
the harming of all sentient beings, whether human
or animal. Tibet used to be an unspoiled
wilderness sanctuary in a unique natural environment.

Today, Tibet's traditional environment is
suffering irreparable damage. The effects of this
are especially notable on the grasslands, the
croplands, the forests, the water resources and the wildlife.

In view of this, according to Articles 45 and 66
of the LNRA, the Tibetan people should be given
the right over the environment and allow them to
follow their traditional conservation practices.

6)  Utilisation of Natural Resources
With respect to the protection and management of
the natural environment and the utilisation of
natural resources the Constitution and the LRNA
only acknowledge a limited role for the organs of
self-government of the autonomous areas (see LRNA
Articles 27, 28, 45, 66, and Article 118 of the
Constitution, which pledges that the state “shall
give due consideration to the interests of [the
national autonomous areas]]”.  The LRNA
recognises the importance for the autonomous
areas to protect and develop forests and
grasslands (Article 27) and to “give priority to
the rational exploitation and utilization of the
natural resources that the local authorities are
entitled to develop”, but only within the limits
of state plans and legal stipulations. In fact,
the central role of the State in these matters is
reflected in the Constitution (Article 9).

The principles of autonomy enunciated in the
Constitution cannot, in our view, truly lead to
Tibetans becoming masters of their own destiny if
they are not sufficiently involved in
decision-making on utilisation of natural
resources such as mineral resources, waters,
forests, mountains, grasslands, etc.

The ownership of land is the foundation on which
the development of natural resources, taxes and
revenues of an economy are based.  Therefore, it
is essential that only the nationality of the
autonomous region shall have the legal authority
to transfer or lease land, except land owned by
the state. In the same manner, the autonomous
region must have the independent authority to
formulate and implement developmental plans concurrent to the state plans.

7)  Economic Development and Trade
Economic Development in Tibet is welcome and much
needed. The Tibetan people remain one of the most
economically backward regions within the PRC.

The Constitution recognises the principle that
the autonomous authorities have an important role
to play in the economic development of their
areas in view of local characteristics and needs
(Article 118 of the Constitution, also reflected
in LRNA Article 25). The Constitution also
recognises the principle of autonomy in the
administration and management of finances
(Article 117, and LRNA Article 32). At the same
time, the Constitution also recognises the
importance of providing State funding and
assistance to the autonomous areas to accelerate
development (Article 122, LRNA Article 22).

Similarly, Article 31 of the LRNA recognises the
competence of autonomous areas, especially those
such as Tibet, adjoining foreign countries, to
conduct border trade as well as trade with
foreign countries. The recognition of these
principles is important to the Tibetan
nationality given the region’s proximity to
foreign countries with which the people have
cultural, religious, ethnic and economic affinities.

The assistance rendered by the Central Government
and the provinces has temporary benefits, but in
the long run if the Tibetan people are not
self-reliant and become dependent on others it
has greater harm. Therefore, an important
objective of autonomy is to make the Tibetan people economically self-reliant.

8)  Public health
The Constitution enunciates the responsibility of
the State to provide health and medical services
(Article 21). Article 119 recognises that this is
an area of responsibility of the autonomous
areas. The LRNA (Article 40) also recognises the
right of organs of self-government of the
autonomous areas to “make independent decisions
on plans for developing local medical and health
services and for advancing both modern and the
traditional medicine of the nationalities.”

The existing health system fails to adequately
cover the needs of the rural Tibetan
population.  According to the principles of the
above-mentioned laws, the regional autonomous
organs need to have the competencies and
resources to cover the health need of the entire
Tibetan population. They also need the
competencies to promote the traditional Tibetan
medical and astro system strictly according to traditional practice.

9)  Public Security
In matters of public security it is important
that the majority of security personnel consists
of members of the local nationality who
understand and respect local customs and traditions.

What is lacking in Tibetan areas is absence of
decision-making authority in the hands of local Tibetan officials.

An important aspect of autonomy and
self-government is the responsibility for the
internal public order and security of the
autonomous areas. The Constitution (Article 120)
and LRNA (Article 24) recognise the importance of
local involvement and authorise autonomous areas
to organise their security within "the military
system of the State and practical needs and with
the approval of the State Council."

10) Regulation on population migration
The fundamental objective of national regional
autonomy and self-government is the preservation
of the identity, culture, language and so forth
of the minority nationality and to ensure that it
is the master of its own affairs. When applied to
a particular territory in which the minority
nationality lives in a concentrated community or
communities, the very principle and purpose of
national regional autonomy is disregarded if
large scale migration and settlement of the
majority Han nationality and other nationalities
is encouraged and allowed.  Major demographic
changes that result from such migration will have
the effect of assimilating rather than
integrating the Tibetan nationality into the Han
nationality and gradually extinguishing the
distinct culture and identity of the Tibetan
nationality. Also, the influx of large numbers of
Han and other nationalities into Tibetan areas
will fundamentally change the conditions
necessary for the exercise of regional autonomy
since the constitutional criteria for the
exercise of autonomy, namely that the minority
nationality “live in compact communities” in a
particular territory is changed and undermined by
the population movements and transfers. If such
migrations and settlements continue uncontrolled,
Tibetans will no longer live in a compact
community or communities and will consequently no
longer be entitled, under the Constitution, to
national regional autonomy. This would
effectively violate the very principles of the
Constitution in its approach to the nationalities issue.

There is precedent in the PRC for restriction on
the movement or residence of citizens. There is
only a very limited recognition of the right of
autonomous areas to work out measures to control
“the transient population” in those areas. To us
it would be vital that the autonomous organs of
self-government have the authority to regulate
the residence, settlement and employment or
economic activities of persons who wish to move
to Tibetan areas from other parts of the PRC in
order to ensure respect for and the realisation
of the objectives of the principle of autonomy.

It is not our intention to expel the non-Tibetans
who have permanently settled in Tibet and have
lived there and grown up there for a considerable
time. Our concern is the induced massive movement
of primarily Han but also some other
nationalities into many areas of Tibet, upsetting
existing communities, marginalising the Tibetan
population there and threatening the fragile natural environment.

11)  Cultural, educational and religious exchanges with other countries
Besides the importance of exchanges and
cooperation between the Tibetan nationality and
other nationalities, provinces, and regions of
the PRC in the subject matters of autonomy, such
as culture, art, education, science, public
health, sports, religion, environment, economy
and so forth, the power of autonomous areas to
conduct such exchanges with foreign countries in
these areas is also recognised in the LRNA (Article 42).


In order for the Tibetan nationality to develop
and flourish with its distinct identity, culture
and spiritual tradition through the exercise of
self-government on the above mentioned basic
Tibetan needs, the entire community, comprising
all the areas currently designated by the PRC as
Tibetan autonomous areas, should be under one
single administrative entity.   The current
administrative divisions, by which Tibetan
communities are ruled and administered under
different provinces and regions of the PRC,
foments fragmentation, promotes unequal
development, and weakens the ability of the
Tibetan nationality to protect and promote its
common cultural, spiritual and ethnic identity.
Rather than respecting the integrity of the
nationality, this policy promotes its
fragmentation and disregards the spirit of
autonomy. Whereas the other major minority
nationalities such as the Uighurs and Mongols
govern themselves almost entirely within their
respective single autonomous regions, Tibetans
remain as if they were several minority nationalities instead of one.

Bringing all the Tibetans currently living in
designated Tibetan autonomous areas within a
single autonomous administrative unit is entirely
in accordance with the constitutional principle
contained in Article 4, also reflected in the
LRNA (Article 2), that “regional autonomy is
practiced in areas where people of minority
nationalities live in concentrated communities.”
The LRNA describes regional national autonomy as
the “basic policy adopted by the Communist Party
of China for the solution of the national
question in China” and explains its meaning and intent in its Preface:

the minority nationalities, under unified state
leadership, practice regional autonomy in areas
where they live in concentrated communities and
set up organs of self-government for the exercise
of the power of autonomy. Regional national
autonomy embodies the state’s full respect for
and guarantee of the right of the minority
nationalities to administer their internal
affairs and its adherence to the principle of
equality, unity and common prosperity of all nationalities.

It is clear that the Tibetan nationality within
the PRC will be able to exercise its right to
govern itself and administer its internal affairs
effectively only once it can do so through an
organ of self-government that has jurisdiction
over the Tibetan nationality as a whole.

The LRNA recognises the principle that boundaries
of national autonomous areas may need to be
modified. The need for the application of the
fundamental principles of the Constitution on
regional autonomy through respect of the
integrity of the Tibetan nationality is not only
totally legitimate, but the administrative
changes that may be required to achieve this in
no way violate constitutional principles. There
are several precedents where this has been actually done.


The extent to which the right to self-government
and self-administration can be exercised on the
preceding subject matters largely determines the
genuine character of Tibetan autonomy. The task
at hand is therefore to look into the manner in
which autonomy can be regulated and exercised for
it to effectively respond to the unique situation
and basic needs of the Tibetan nationality.

The exercise of genuine autonomy would include
the right of Tibetans to create their own
regional government and government institutions
and processes that are best suited to their needs
and characteristics. It would require that the
People’s Congress of the autonomous region have
the power to legislate on all matters within the
competencies of the region (that is the subject
matters referred to above) and that other organs
of the autonomous government have the power to
execute and administer decisions autonomously.
Autonomy also entails representation and
meaningful participation in national
decision-making in the Central Government.
Processes for effective consultation and close
cooperation or joint decision-making between the
Central Government and the regional government on
areas of common interest also need to be in place
for the autonomy to be effective.

A crucial element of genuine autonomy is the
guarantee the Constitution or other laws provide
that powers and responsibilities allocated to the
autonomous region cannot be unilaterally
abrogated or changed. This means that neither the
Central Government nor the autonomous region’s
government should be able, without the consent of
the other, to change the basic features of the autonomy.

The parameters and specifics of such genuine
autonomy for Tibet that respond to the unique
needs and conditions of the Tibetan people and
region should be set out in some detail in
regulations on the exercise of autonomy, as
provided for in Article 116 of the Constitution
(enacted in LRNA Article 19) or, if it is found
to be more appropriate, in a separate set of laws
or regulations adopted for that purpose. The
Constitution, including Article 31, provides the
flexibility to adopt special laws to respond to
unique situations such as the Tibetan one, while
respecting the established social, economic and
political system of the country.

The Constitution in Section VI provides for
organs of self-government of national autonomous
regions and acknowledges their power to
legislate. Thus Article 116 (enacted in Article
19 of the LRNA) refers to their power to enact
"separate regulations in light of the political,
economic and cultural characteristics of the
nationality or nationalities in the areas
concerned.”  Similarly, the Constitution
recognises the power of autonomous administration
in a number of areas (Article 117-120) as well as
the power of autonomous governments to apply
flexibility in implementing the laws and policies
of the Central Government and higher state organs
to suit the conditions of the autonomous area concerned (Article 115).

The above-mentioned legal provisions do contain
significant limitations to the decision-making
authority of the autonomous organs of government.
But the Constitution nevertheless recognises the
principle that organs of self-government make
laws and policy decisions that address local
needs and that these may be different from those
adopted elsewhere, including by the Central Government.

Although the needs of the Tibetans are broadly
consistent with the principles on autonomy
contained in the Constitution, as we have shown,
their realisation is impeded because of the
existence of a number of problems, which makes
the implementation of those principles today difficult or ineffective.

Implementation of genuine autonomy, for example,
requires clear divisions of powers and
responsibilities between the Central Government
and the government of the autonomous region with
respect to subject matter competency. Currently
there is no such clarity and the scope of
legislative powers of autonomous regions is both
uncertain and severely restricted. Thus, whereas
the Constitution intends to recognise the special
need for autonomous regions to legislate on many
matters that affect them, the requirements of
Article 116 for prior approval at the highest
level of the Central Government - by the Standing
Committee of National People’s Congress (NPC) -
inhibit the implementation of this principle of
autonomy. In reality, it is only autonomous
regional congresses that expressly require such
approval, while the congresses of ordinary (not
autonomous) provinces of the PRC do not need
prior permission and merely report the passage of
regulations to the Standing Committee of the NPC
“for the record” (Article 100).

The exercise of autonomy is further subject to a
considerable number of laws and regulations,
according to Article 115 of the Constitution.
Certain laws effectively restrict the autonomy of
the autonomous region, while others are not
always consistent with one another. The result is
that the exact scope of the autonomy is unclear
and is not fixed, since it is unilaterally
changed with the enactment of laws and
regulations are higher levels of the state, and
even by changes in policy. There is also no
adequate process for consultation or for settling
differences that arise between the organs of the
Central Government and of the regional government
with respect to the scope and exercise of
autonomy. In practice, the resulting uncertainty
limits the initiative of regional authorities and
impedes the exercise of genuine autonomy by Tibetans today.

We do not at this stage wish to enter into
details regarding these and other impediments to
the exercise of genuine autonomy today by
Tibetans, but mention them by way of example so
that these may be addressed in the appropriate
manner in our dialogue in the future. We will
continue to study the Constitution and other
relevant legal provisions and, when appropriate,
will be pleased to provide further analysis of
these issues, as we understand them.


As stated at the beginning of this memorandum,
our intention is to explore how the needs of the
Tibetan nationality can be met within the
framework of PRC since we believe these needs are
consistent with the principles of the
Constitution on autonomy. As His Holiness the
Dalai Lama stated on a number of occasions, we
have no hidden agenda. We have no intention at
all of using any agreement on genuine autonomy as
stepping stone for separation from the PRC.

The objective of the Tibetan Government in Exile
is to represent the interests of the Tibetan
people and to speak on their behalf. Therefore,
it will no longer be needed and will be dissolved
once an agreement is reached between us. In fact,
His Holiness has reiterated his decision not to
accept any political office in Tibet at any time
in the future. His Holiness the Dalai Lama,
nevertheless, plans to use all his personal
influence to ensure such an agreement would have
the legitimacy necessary to obtain the support of the Tibetan people.

Given these strong commitments, we propose that
the next step in this process be the agreement to
start serious discussions on the points raised in
this memorandum. For this purpose we propose that
we discuss and agree on a mutually agreeable
mechanism or mechanisms and a timetable to do so effectively.
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